Asli "original, indigenous" (p. 60, fn. 1) mythology

placenta as soul-twin

"the father makes the body of the child, the mother that of its counterpart, the placenta." The placenta is the baby's "'older sibling' (to`h)." (p. 52)

{The [Kemetian] hieroglyph for "placenta" is H^, cf. [<arabic] >aH^ "sibling"}

placenta as "older sibling is said to go to the afterworld to reapear on the person's death." (p. 70)

[same belief in Mindanaw, WR, p. 210]

infanticide by suffocating infant with its own placenta (p. 70)

[so that murderous parents can accuse, falsely, their child of intentional suicide!]

physiology & souls

p. 168

Batek: "a shaman (hala> te) having the clear, colorless blood of the hala> asal."

{cf. [Hellenic] ikhor}

p. 169

The "dew" shaman bringeth back "some dew from Earth Six in which he bathes".

{"bodies shall rise. ... For thy dew is a dew of light, and on ... the shades thou wilt let it fall." (YS^<YH 26:19) -- cf. [Chinese] collection of dew from mirrors}

p. 147

"a person's shadow (bayang) becomes its sotn" upon death


p. 148

as for this sotn (soul of the dead), "All its joints are loose".

{cf. [Iban] belief that souls reside in the major joints of the body}


"what the living call left (yal), the dead call right (t>o`ben)."

{cf. [Chinese] belief that the souls of the dead can be seen in mirrors}

p. 153

"the liver (rus) being the seat of thoughts and feelings."

{cf. [Astika] quaery "Who am I?": "who" [Skt.] yaka is like ykr.t "liver, hepat-" -- while RUS.ya as dominant of the praesent yuga is the "Be here, now".}

p. 261

sleep is governed by spider-deity: Spider-man had sexual intercourse with sleeping women without their being aware of it.

(cf. the Muria and their ghotul; also in Philippines, men have sexual intercourse with feignedly sleeping women]

Te "Earths", counting downwards, each the sky of the earth beneath it; sun going beneath each Earth at night, do that day & night are reverse on consecutive Earths (p. 59) [putaw "shamans" visit Earths in dreams or trances, p. 64]




p. 60


"uninhabited, very small, and covered in mist."



Timoh Awan "gibbon clouds" -- inhabited by yinlugen timoh "ghost gibbons"


6th "Enam"

fructivorous people (durian-fruit-eaters, p. 257): "They do not ... die. When they become very old they metamorphose into infants." -- the lake Pulam Briyaw -- the opening Pinto Lancob in ground {cf. [Hopi sipapu], [Latin] mundus} allowing access to 7th Earth, its "door consists of several huge stones that roll to and fro" (p. 256) {cf. Sumplegades}, entered only by "dew"-shamans (such as the bumblebee, p. 256)

p. 60

7th, [?highest] clouds

clouds which have a golden rim -- Tanko ("incest", p. 82) the begetter (p. 81) of all placentas ("Talaiden thunder is the sound of Tanko's laughter at the human predicatment." p. 80); his wife +Ya> Suban (-- "lightning ... the harmless ... kilad ... is ... the reflections of Ya> Subang's ear-rings ... and ... these hit ... the hip and knee joints of those who commit incest". p. 80)

p. 62

7th, [higher] clouds

Klisogen = clouds "where a cetain species of tiny frog (britogen) live." (-- "talaiden storm caused by someone laughing at an animal".)

p. 62

7th, [middle] clouds

"red clouds called Plantor Birai ... are the homes of" yinlugen bawaig "ghost macaques"

p. 62

7th [lower] clouds

Plantor, the home of "Bajaegen (male) and Ponjur (female)."

p. 63

7th ("Tujuh", p. 59)

p. 63 "Many little suns were in the sky during the daytime" {cf. [Chinese] myth of the same primaevally, and [Bauddha] at destruction of world}: these were children of sun-goddess (sister of moon-goddess) and were swallowed by their mother, though moon-goddess merely hid hers protectively {cf. mother-fish holding her offspring in her mouth protectively}

pp. 62-63

under 7th Earth

(p. 62) in the west, Pulaw Klam ("island fog") = afterworld for the dead, i.e. (p. 63) for yinlugen (ghosts) of non-shamans -- in Pulaw Klam (p. 147) the to`h awaiteth the death of its living counterpart, and inquireth of the newly dead corpse: "'Where is your to`h?' Upon hearing this the corpse sits up, and must reply, 'You. You are my to`h.'" {cf. [Muslim] Angel of Death coming to corpse in grave to make inquisition. CLAM is [Eckankar] designation for would-be "clears" in processing.}

p. 63


"in the water underneath Earth Seven": talo`den asal ("Snake Original") who "is a woman and she lives in the water" [nagini as 1/2-snake-1/2-woman], she is Ya> Rud {cf. [Manda<] primaeval Rud}.


8th "Lapan"

bi bado`den "folk old"

{cf. the cloud-heavens of Hawai>ian mythology}

successive destructions of the Earth

p. 64

when the "Original Snake" shall ascend hither, "the water from below Earth will wipe out everything and everybody on Earth."

p. 66

"every so often Earth Seven is turned upside down." {cf. [Maori] Te Huriana-i-Mata-aho}:

p. 67

"When this is about to happen", the Asli people"turn into flower buds and fly up to Earth Six." {cf. [Chinese] flowering trees as life-tokens in other-world; [Astika & Bauddha] retreat of people into Heaven when Earth is about to be destroyed.}

p. 132

"shortly before Tohan turns the Earth over, all animals and trees regain their ability to speak." Then, because the C^ewon cannot "go on killing trees and animals and tubers when they talk to us", they pray for a reversal, the result of which is the overturning of the 7th Earth.

evolution of culture

p. 182

(?race of people) tiger punishing mixing of meats [-- "the tiger sees the offense in its liver" (p. 153)]

{[?Chinese] seeing by liver}

p. 255

Into the thorn-lined vagina of the Pandanus-goddess, crept a hero who had "made himself into a tiny being so that he could enter" it unscathed.

{[Maori:] Into the greenstone&-obsidian-lined vagina of the goddess Hine-nui-te-Po, crept the hero Maui-tikitiki who had "made himself into a caterpillar so that he could enter" it.}

p. 67

an early race of people was actually in "the shape of an elephant" [-- therefore (p. 182) "to eat elephant meat ... would lead to being attacked and killed by an elephant." This is described as "snake or elephant meat".

{[in Skt.,] naga could be either "snake" or "elephant"}


the later race of people was in human shape, breath of life being blown into their fontanelles through the clenched fist of their maker

{cf. [Hopi] belief of primordial people guided through understanding entering their fontanelles} "Then he hit their big toes." {cf. toe of [Norse] O,rvandil}


"Yinlugen Bud (ghost of a tree-trunk)" {cf. [Freemasonic] worship of pillars} taught to hunters the maro (rule to share game-meat)

{cf. institution of eating in common, by PUThagoras & BUDdha, and by Freemasons -- some South American Indians forbid a hunter to eat any meat of game-animals caught by himself, perhaps to hinder soul of animal from finding its murderer}.

p. 69

Yinlugen Bud also taught the pantan, that mothers ought not be slain at child-birth to extract infant, nor babies suckled on their fathers' elbows

{cf. [Maya] belief that elbow is aperture for wind}

p. 88 places whither tolaeg will taken soul of child eating it




Timoh Awan = clouds above 6th Earth

mountain tortoise

"top of a very high mountain"


"underground headquarters of a river"

water monitor lizard



Plantor Birai

pp. 100-102 itinerary of the +Bi Inhar ("people leaves", all female) goddesses [-- "they sit and swing in the riding (loops ... attached ... to the tali ruwai, the string ... that is hung ... from one wall to another)" (p. 96) -- They are wives of specific C^ewon men, "their 'husbands' (teh) when they meet in dreams." (p. 95)]

p. 100

Kampon ("village") [named] Betelnut


Nonson (= 6th Earth, p. 102)


Plantor the white


Plantor the red


Mt. Benom (= Nintjar, p. 102) [with BeNoM cf. [Khmer] BNaM (pronounced "Fu-nan" in Chinese) "mountain"


"a ladder path"


"a tree bridge"

p. 101

"bathe under the waterfall"


green mist from So:son


white mist from So:son


"the tree top"





p. 102, n. 20

"The bi inhar laugh when they see the ruwai ... being tossed"

p. 102

they return to Mt. Dabogn (= Benom)

putaw's samaden ("bandolier", p. 102, n. 15) = [Zaratustrian & Astika] "sacred thread" = [Etruscan & Norse] "baldric"

pp. 107-112 bas, description of species of





p. 107


En banka

hound that hitteth

p. 108


Ta> Jijogn

"inside large fallen trees"




"in wild pandanus plants." "have only one arm and one leg -- if a right leg then a left arm and vice versa ... They attack by ... sucking ... men at the elbow ..., and women are bitten on their nipples."



Mawes (= Brai, p. 109)

on mountain. "Their noses are upside down ..., and their feet are back to front. ... The bones of their lower arms are sharp like knives ..."

p. 109


Ta> Boli

"in trees": is attracted by sound of wood-chopping. "is covered with long hair."



Ta> Nlono`i

"in the jungle."




"at the 'true headwater of rivers' ... pinto gahogn."








"causes diarrhoea in children. He arrives in lightning"

p. 110






"with very long claw-like fingers"




"give severe stomach upsets"




"slow loris"




"in the river", drags people under [crocodile?]




"in early morning fog"

pp. 110-111


Ta> Tyo>

"in the tops of tango`i and badong trees." "the person becomes dizzy (todmed)" ("Everything looks upside down and one is constantly dizzy." p. 111)

p. 111



"flying lemur (keo)" ["He wanted to put a plantain inside his wife's vagina and eat it from there." {this in done in public by detected adultery-couple to shame them, in New Guinea} "He really wanted to eat his wife's vulva." p. 266]




ghosts of those devoured by it go to Pulaw Klam. ("The only way to kill nlab is to use fire." p. 275)



Bujaegn Majas

"his tongue is so long that he wears it around his head like a headband."



Bas Ko`c^

"land tortoise". "bites the spleen ... and it is in fact malaria."



Ta> Nimo`i

"like poisonous ants"

pp. 111-112


Ta> Sampar

"cause bad colds. He lives near the ocean ..." ["throwing poison (toba) into the river which stuns the ruwai ['soul'] ('the way we poison fish')." p. 112 {-- cf. "Be ye fishers of men!" -- [Maori] caelestial "long fish" as place of souls of the slain-in-battle}]

p. 112



"consume the body so that is becomes very thin. ... the patient dies." [cancer?]




"one man who is said to have lost his penis is said to have been attacked by Toko`." {retraction of man's penis into his body in achieved through yoga}




"bite people's feet when they are walking." [scorpion?]



Ta> Glohul

"in the rivers." "can be frightened away by ... wild ginger (bunglei)"




"elephant ... lives in a swamp" [hippopotamus?] -- its urine blistereth

WR = Stuart A. Schlegel: Wisdom from a Rainforest. U. of GA Pr, Athens, 1998.

see also:

Signe Howell: Society and Cosmos. Oxford U. Pr, 1984. [C^ewon of Malaya]


belief of the Mani (Asli of southern Thailand) concerning souls :-

Category 1 is called Yah, the essence of life, the spirit that has departed from the body of the dead.

Category 2 is called Robe, what we Thais call Jettapuht, the spirit that roams out of the body during sleep.

Category 3 is called Semang Ngad, a kind of spirit which a person of an appropriate knowledge about ghost calling can summon to reside in a human being causing the person to be possessed or fall in love with someone.

Category 4 is called Badee, what we Thais call Prang Kwan, which come from various animals.