Chinese Magical Medicine, 2






Taoist Eschatology



Bauddha Daimonology



China's Indigenous Daimones



Taoist Technical Literature



Taoist Eschatology


pp. 60 Fa-mieh C^in ("Book on the Extinction of the Law"), T. 396 & T. 2874 -- the 52-year-cycle of planet Venus

p. 60

"Then the Youth of Lunar Radiance will appear in the world

{This could be one of the 9000 Moon-Buddha-s who contrast with the 1000 Sun-Buddha-s in the list of 10000 Buddha-s cited in S^in-gon and in Zen.}

and reign as a Buddhist monarch {as cakra-vartin? : if so, this reign may praeceding an incarnation as Moon-Buddha, would would survive only a single day} for fifty-two years -- one Venus cycle.

{This 52-year cycle is prominently MesoAmerican (Aztec, etc.).}

At the conclusion of that period, two of the fundamental Mahayana {vaipulya-}sutra[-]s, the S`uramgama-samadhi (Shou-leng-yen san-mei ching, T. 642) and the Pratyutpanna-samadhi (Pan-chou an-mei ching, T. 417), will disappear. This will be followed by the disappearance of all twelve divisions of Buddhist scripture ... .

Then the robes of all Buddhist monks will turn white ... .

[p. 300, n. 2:6 : "According to the sources quoted by Lin [Li-kouang 1949, p. 89], weaing a white robe was imposed as a sanction for ... creating a schism in the Sangha".]

The fifty-two-year period during which the Buddhist monarch Lunar Radiance will reign is compared ... to the final flare-up of a lamp before its extinction."

p. 300, n. 2:5

"According to the Mahaparinirvan.a-sutra (T. 375, 12:663c) [and T. 376, 12:895a], ... the Nirvan.a-sutra[-]s ... will all disappear into the soil of Kashmir {Kas`mir}; see Demie'ville, in Renou and Filliozat [1947], vol. 2, par. 2115. ... The Fa-mieh C^in (T. 396, 12:1119a-p. 300, n. 2:5 b) describes the sudden deluge at the end, and the apparition of Moonlight (Yu:eh-kuang) ... . Another widespread theory {of Bon provenience? -- worship of naga-raja-s is characteristic of Bon} had it that the Mahayana scriptures, like the relics of the Buddha, would be preserved in the palace of the naga-king, under the sea."

Lin 1949 = Lin Li-kouang : L'Aide-me'moire de la Vraie Loi (Saddharma-smr.tyupasthana-sutra). MUSE'E GUIMET, BIBLIOTHE`QUE D'E'TUDES, 54. Paris : Adrien Maisonneuve.

Renou & Filliozat 1947 = Louis Renou & Jean Filliozat (edd.) : L'Inde classique. 2 voll.


Bauddha Daimonology


p. 67 T. 945 (early 8th century Chr.E.) -- grahi goddesses






"demoness who troubles infants"


"demon[ess] in horse's shape"


"demon[esse]s in the shape of cats"


"demon[esse]s in serpentine form"


"fox [vixen]-demon[esse]s"


China's Indigenous Daimones


p. 69 praevious European-language books on Chinese daimonology

"J. J. M. De Groot (1892-1910, vol. 5),

Marcel Granet (1926), and

Kiang Chao-yuan (1937)."

J. J. M. De Groot : The Religious System of China. 6 voll. 1892-1910.

Marcel Granet : Danses et le'gendes de la Chine ancienne. 2 voll. 1926.

Kiang Chao-yuan(transl. into French by Fan Jen : Le voyage dans la Chine ancienne, ... magique et religieux. Shanghai, 1937.

p. 71 language of the dead

"The dead have their own writing-system, and can speak -- but their speech is like the grunting of beasts, the twittering of birds".

p. 304, n. 2:48 travels by the living into the netherworld inhabited by souls of the dead

"For travelers' accounts of the other Other World, see Demie'ville 1976; Teiser 1988; and Campany 1990. In the Taoist tradition, there is the well-known story ... of Hu Mu-pan's discovery of the world of the dead after entering T>ai Shan. In Chen-kao 15.2a, the story is mentioned ... amid ... tales of those returned from the dead. We are told that Hu "entered the 'heavenly grotto' (tung-t>ien) without knowing it," ... namely, that he had obtained a much sought-after privilege".

Demie'ville 1976 = Paul Demie'ville : "Une descente aux enfers sous les T>ang : la biographie de Houang Che-k>iang". In :- E'tudes d'histoire et de la litte'rature chinoises offertes au professeur Jaroslav Prus^ek. Paris : Pr U de France. pp. 71-84.

Teiser 1988 = Stephen Teiser : The Ghost Festival in Medieval China. Princeton U Pr.

Campany 1990 = Robert F. Campany : "Return from Death Narratives in in Early Medieval China". J OF CHINESE RELIGIONS 18:91-125.

p. 74 revenant

"A kuei is that which returns (kuei). According to this widespread traditional definition, a kuei is literally a revenant, a "returning" soul of the "departed.""

{Revenant ghosts were formerly more common in Europe and elsewhere (PM, p. 63).}

PM = Nicholaj de Mattos Frisvold : Palo Mayombe. Bibliothe`que Rouge (Scarlet Imprint), 2011.

pp. 74-5 killer-ghost

p. 74

"Toward the end of the sixth century [Chr.E.], an author [Yen C^ih-t>ui : Yen -s^ih C^ia Hsu:n (Family Instructionsfor the Yen Clan. Leiden : Brill, 1968.), 6] described the belief ... that the dead came back to their erstwhile home to kill ... . When they were expected, their children and grandchildren would flee the family home".

p. 75

"a fearless hunter ... once ... sought lodging from people who were evacuating their house because ... a killer-ghost was due to arrive that very night. ... Toward the end of the third watch, a luminous object. like a big plate, flew down out of the air through the gate in the courtyard, gleaming" (T>ai-p>in Kuan-c^i 363:2882).

pp. 76-8 cadaver-daimones

p. 76

"Writing in the first century C.E., Wang Ch>ung noted [Lun-hen, "Tin-kuei", 344] that specialists in untoward phenomena would regularly behold three sorts of ... manifestations : flying corpses, running ..., and homunculi.

At the beginning of the fourth century [Chr.E.], ... Ko Hung (283-343) ... writes [C^ou-hou Pei-c^i Fan (HY 1295) 1:14b-15a] ...

First there are the flying corpses, which roam about a person's skin ... . ...

The next type, the "reclusive corpse," attaches itself to your bones ...; its symptoms break out when it beholds a funeral ... .

Wind-corpses ... lead to dizziness and loss of consciousness, and their outbreaks are provoked

by wind and snow.

{The cakra Anahata of wind-god Vayu is denoted by a snowflake-like 6-pointed figure.}

The "sinking corpse" ... strikes against the heart and ribs, causing a knotting, slicing sensation there ... .

p. 77

The fifth corpse-demon syndrome is known as corpse-infusion or corpse-infestation (shih-chu) ... . The victim feels that ... the vital breaths are shifting and changing in his body's every joint ... .

Ko Hung observes [1:15a] that these external corpse-demons ... enter at the invitation of the three corpses that are regularly residents of the body's interior. ... There are two sets of potentially harmful indwellers against whom the informed must take careful precautions.

The first are the seven p>o, the white-souls ... with which every mortal is equipped. ... Their strongest wish is to rejoin the damp, dank underground springs ..., and so they seek to undermine and get rid of the constraining human body they inhabit. Thus at night, while their host is sleeping (and the airborne hun-souls are sporting ... with the hun of other sleepers, thereby causing dreams), the p>o beckon to passing phantoms and disease-demons and invite them in to take possession of the sleeper's body and work toward his destruction. [HY 639:9a; cf. Bokenkamp 1997a:287 and 322-3]

The very names of the seven p>o-souls suggests their ... function, and one early list significant begins with a corpse :

[HY 639:10a; Bokenkamp 1997a:278-8, 324-5 :] "corpse-dog, hidden dung, sparrow-sex, greedy guts, flying venom, filth-for-removal, and rot-lung."

p. 78

"The corpse-demons may manifest themselves in the ascetic's dreams in the guise of three old men garbed in rather old-fashioned costumes."

pp. 79 & 306 tomb-dwellers' legal contracts

p. 79

"The contracts record the purchase of the tomb-site for the use of the newly dead person. In many of these texts, the land's seller is a divine figure (often a manifestation of the god of the soil), and if witnesses to the contract are named, they are generally also spirit-personages or divinized immortals from an earlier era. The boundaries of the site are stated in terms of sacred geography, and the purchase price is usually an exorbitant sum, often of numerological significance. ... such contracts were addressed to the spirit-hierarchy of the invisible world and were intended to guarantee the tomb-dweller's security of occupancy. ... a tomb-stabilizing statement on pottery, tile, or lead announced the newly dead person's entry into the underworld and marked the transfer of his name from the Registers of Life to the Registers of the Dead."

p. 306, n. 2:67

"On these tomb-contracts ..., dating from the Eastern Han dynasty and later, see Kleeman 1984; Seidel ... 1987b; Hansen 1995a, chaps. 6-7. ... Donald Harper has traced the antecedents of this legalistic tradition to the fourth century B.C.E. (Harper 1994) ... . This legislative ordering of religious life in visible and invisible worlds takes several forms : hsien-chieh (precepts for immortals, i.e., living adepts), kuei-lu: (statutes for the shades, canons ... that will be visited on the dead ...), and k>e-p>in (... lists that stipulate offerings in rites for ... demons)."

Kleeman 1984 = Terry A. Kleeman : "Land Contracts and Related Documents". In :- Chugoku no shukyo. Tokyo. pp. 1-34.

Seidel 1987b = Anna K. Seidel : "Traces of Han Religions in Funeral Texts Found in Tombs". In :- Akizuki Kan'ei (ed.) : Dokyo to shukyo bunka. Tokyo. pp. 21-57.

Hansen 1995a = Valerie Hansen : Negotiating Daily Life in Traditional China ... 600-1400. New Haven, Yale U Pr.

Harper 1994 = Donald Harper : "Resurrection in Warring States Popular Religion". TAOIST RESOURCES 5,2:13-29.


Taoist Technical Literature


pp. 80, 307 meanings of /nu:-c^>in/

p. 80

"As for ... nu:-ch>ing, the literal meaning is "woman blue," but ... Nu:-ch>ing is also the name of a malodorous plant (Paedaria foetida) ... . According to the second-century C.E. classic pharmacopeia (the Shen-nung pen-ts>ao ching),

the plant controls virulent magical infections, expelling ... evil influences (ch>i, "breaths"), killer-demons ... and ... inauspicious beings."

{This "Chinese Fever Flower ... Stink Vine ... is used medicinally as an anti-inflammatory, an immune booster" ("SPF").} {In Indonesia, "It is an important plant for the local people for food and traditional medicine." ("EPF", p. 248a)} {In India, it is deemed useful "for relaxing and 'spreading' parts of the body contracted by paralysis", and effective against "arthritis and rheumatic disorders." ("PF")} {"Long used in Indian folk medicine for aches and pains, a ... study ... showed it has analgesic properties. ... It also has antioxidant activity. ... Leaf juice mixed with garlic is a folk remedy for arthritis." ("SV")}

p. 307, n. 2:75

"Nickerson 1996:272, n. 8. informs us that "Nu:-ch>ing" is referred to in the Demon-Statutes of Nu:-ch>ing itself as a revealer of statutes ... and as the star T>ai-i (HY 789, 5:4a6 and 2:5b8). In the Ling-pao scriptures (e.g., HY 4546, passim), Nu:-ch>ing appeasrs as the supervisor of the recordkeeping of the good and evil behavior in the offices of the Three Primes (San-yu:an, and somewhat later designates one of the twenty-four prisons {cf. the 24 naks.atra-s?} for sinners (e.g., HY 184). For the latter ..., see ... Yen Chih-t>ui's Yu:an-hun chih in De Groot 1892-1910, vol. 4:442-43; here the Nu:-ch>ing Pavilion is the third "hell" beneath the Yellow Springs, which is reserved only for women."

"SPF" = "Stinkvine! Paederia foetida"

"EPF" = "Ethnobotany ... of ... Paederia foetida" INTERNAT FOOD RESEARCH J 19(1): 245-50 (2012).

"PF" = "Paederia foetida"

"SV" = "Skunk Vine"

pp. 81-2 putative origin of the Daimon-Statutes of Nu:-c^>in

p. 81

"at noon on the seventh day of the seventh month in the second year (... of ... the Han-an period of the Han dynasty, or 143 C.E., when the Most High Lord of Tao ... initially revealed himself to the Celestial Master Chang Tao-ling), he sent down these Demon-Statutes in eight scrolls, registering the demons' family names and given names and the auspicious and

p. 82

inauspicious practices associated with them. He directed Chang Tao-ling, the Celestial Master, to control the demons ... :

[HY 789, 1:1a-b] If hereafter there are male or female Taoists who behold my secret scripture and thereby know the names of the demons, .. the thousand spirits will all submit and comport themselves as set forth in the Statutes."

pp. 82-83 Daimon-Statutes of Nu:-c^>in (by the Caelestial Master C^an Tao-lin)



ordinary name



corner-dir. on Mt. T>ai-S^an



High Lord of the Daimones

Heaven's Successor


1000-feet-tall, reporting to heaven

Thrice-Antient Daimon of South Village

Daemon of the 5 Ways

C^u: "carriage"

Ni "hidden"


to summon the dying by his written orders to killer-daimones

Headless Daimon in the Clouds

Dead General of Broken Armies



is followed by the 5 Dipper-constellation daimones


Daimon of Great Harmony


bodiless head: its exhalation formeth clouds

"The first chapter features a full list of the sixty demons assigned each to one day of the sexagesimal cycle.

2nd chapter :-

Xiu-constellations (AChChSh)














"carpentry" {either a carpenter or a panther was father to Yes^uwa< Mas^yah}




"clothing" [snakes shed their skins, like doffing clothing]



"food" {the monkey Vr.s.a-kapi stole food in the R.c Veda}



"actors" [in Chinese & Japanese folklore, foxes praetend to be people]

twisted trees


"Chariot Cross-board"

5 sorts of puddle


male & female, of debauchery



"Horn" [horniness = debauchery?]

5 sorts of pestilence






"Chamber", "Hall"






"Tail" [from under tail come faeces]




"Machinery" [hoist for well-bucket?]



"Accumulated Fire"





sound of drums


"Emptiness" [hollowness of drums?]

pipes of the reed-organ


"reclaiming land" [by draining cane-brakes?]



"public works" [trench around fort?]




"canals and waterways"







the 1000-year-old White Bone Daimon



the 100-year-old White Bone Daimon



"Turtle Beak" [beak-cartilage is similar to bone; Galapago turtles live 100 years]

the 50-year-old daemon


AChChSh = Ho Peng Yoke: The Astronomical Chapters of the Chin Shu. Paris: Mouton & Co., MCMLXVI.

pp. 83 & 307-8 multitudinous daimones

p. 83

"the text reiterates that for every living being in the world, there are a thousand million demons ..."

p. 307-8, n. 2:80

"the work called Pictures ["Drawn in Accordance with the Instruction of the Legendary Beast"] Po-tse, ... an album of paintings of weird spirits ... was found at Tun-huang; it contains nineteen pictures of animals and human figures (Seidel 1983-85:320-23 ...)."

Seidel 1983-5 = Anna K. Seidel : "Imperial Treasures and Taoist Sacraments". In :- Michel Strickmann (ed.) : Tantric and Taoist Studies in Honour of R. A. Stein. Brussels : I.B.H.E.Ch. Vol. 2, pp. 281-371.

p. 84 a sexual prohibition


Michel Strickmann (ed. by Bernard Faure): Chinese Magical Medicine. Stanford U. Pr, 2002.