Chinese Magical Medicine, 3.3-3.5


Man.i-ratna Book


pp. 110-1, 313 Fo-s^uo Mo-ni Lo-t>an C^in (Man.i-ratna Book), T. 1393, 21:910c5-15 -- the 2 daimones-within-the-state (i.e., hitherto-evil spirits whose past depraedations have been secretly promoted by impious saecular governments throughout the world)

p. 110

"Now there are two demons-within-the-state,

one of whom is named Deep Sands (Shen-sha),

the other Floating Hill (Fu-ch>iu).

These demons march boldly through the world, searching out people's weak points."

p. 111

"Deep Sands, in particular, was to enjoy a long and varied career ..., founded on his helpfulness in keeping other, less refined demons away."

p. 313, n. 3:47

"He also appears in Po Yu:-ch>an's analysis of the Tantric ["yoga"] practice of his time.

... the cult of Deep Sands ... appears fairly prominently in Japanese Tantric ritual and iconographic manuscripts from the eleventh century on ... . ... .

... in an early version of the tale of the seventh-century monk Hsu:an-chuang's journey to India ... Deep Sands is one of the demons encountered and converted along the way. See also Kakuzen sho [T. Zuzo, vol. 5:560c-562b, plates 389-90], where it is said that :

(a) he appeared to Hsu:an-chuang in the desert;

(b) he appeared to Tao-hsu:an on Chung-nan shan;

(c) he is a transformation of Vais`ravana, guardian of the northern direction;

(d) he is identified with T>ai-shan Fu-chu:n ... . ...

In the sixteenth century, the demon comes into his full powers as "Sandy," one of Hsu:an-chuang's droll companions in the Journey to the West (Hsi-yu chi) ... (see Dudbridge 1970:18-21). ... .

... on Deep Sand's acolyte, the god Floating Hill (Fu-ch>iu), ... see Asaba-sho, T. Zuzo, vol. 9:522c-524a, plate 104. According to the Ta-chi ching, ... the god was earlier connected with Shu province's Fu-ch>iu ssu [Floating Hill Temple], and ...

he appeared to a monk in his yaks.a form, bestowing upon him and mantras."

{There are many Amerindian accounts of deities appearing in animal-guise to a shaman in a dream in order to bestow sacred songs.}

Dudbridge 1970 = Glen Dudbridge : The Hsi-yu chi : ... Antecedents to the Sixteenth-Century Chinese Novel. Cambridge U Pr.

pp. 111-113 Fo-s^uo Mo-ni Lo-t>an C^in (Man.i-ratna Book), T. 1393, 21:911a6-12 -- types of daimones

of ailments

p. 111


covetousness & greed

agonized suffering

wasting sickness

painful itching

of planets

Wan-lian phantom-daimones

Dazzling Deluder (Mars)

Roaming Radiance

of govermental __

p. 112



those who died __

in prison

in bondage

by water and drowning

by fire and burning

away from home and have not, as of yet, been buried

in the marketplace

on the road

of thirst

of hunger

of coughing

of cold

by a weapon

by blood [sepsis?]

by rotting meat [gangrene?]

by being beaten

in a fight

from being struck with a staff

from being strangled

by hanging themselves

by stabbing themselves

by an enemy's hand

by violence

who __

cause the skin to putrefy

cut off people's hair

drink people's blood


ride on horseback

ride in carriages

go on foot

"encounter resentment"

as __ (substance)-god




in the __



dams & bridges

canals & locks

way, and outside the way

of the __ tribesfolk

Hu-i (western)

C^>ian-li (northwestern)

__-sprite goblin-daimones




of locations

within the gate

outside the gate

within the door

outside the door

in the well

in the hearth

in stagnant ponds

in the toilet

of __

fan-tao (sorcery)

p. 113

ku-tao (toxic envenomation)

those who fail to act deferentially as official servants and family members

who falsely claim rank and status not their own


The Book of Consecration


pp. 115-7 Book of Consecration


p. 115

4 Great Kings

33 Gods

35 Dragon-Kings

28 Great Spirit-Generals

2 Spirit-Generals' mothers

3 Spirit-Generals' daughters

24 Daimon-Commanders

Mei-Kuei ("Goblin-Daimones")

Deep Sands

Floating Hill

51 others

additions to list of daimones in the Man.i-ratna : daimons __

that died by overeating (praeceding those that died of hunger)

under eaves of house

of the 4 walls

of choking [specifically] on food

p. 116

of gold & silver

of the moment of sitting-down

colored daimones




the 49 Kuei ("Daimones"), as distinct from Mei-Kuei

aethereal-soul interrogators

beaters of spermatic souls

who delight in strife

who speak loudly, laugh loudly, and play greatly

who grasp & pummel

who push & squeeze

who hide in ambush at the Gate of Life

who gobble people's vital essence

who drink people's blood

who butcher human flesh

who gnaw on human bones

who strike people's bones

who gobble people's 5 viscera

who eat people's entrails

who pluck forth people's sinews

who shrink people's veins

who destroy human foeti

who cause difficult births

who delight in anger

who delight in hatred

who go along holding swords

who go along holding sticks

who are crooked & bent

who go along gazing upward

who are split at the waist

who look backward

who go along craning their necks

[who have] broken-marrow

whose bodies have crumbled to dust

blocked & obstructed

with down-hanging heads

of 5 blows

who strike the heart {heart-attack}

of chills & shivers

of fevers & fainting

in sand

among cliffs & mounds

who march boldly along

who raise their arms







who delight in scorching people

"of the radiance of blood"

the 49 S^an-c^in ("Mountain-Essences") [as summarized:]


headless, or

with a variety of animal-heads

in the form of serpents

or of men & women

with 4 eyen or 49 eyen

crying or sighing or stumbling

fighting or spewing forth poisonous vapors in a wide spectrum of colors

the 98 Kuei [also as summarized:]

those responsible for tbe 5 wen ("pestilences")

those that have the 5 sorts of c^u ("infestation") in their care

p. 117

who died in falling out of bed

"that delight in serving as district-magistrates!}

the 47 [more, further] Goblin-Daimones

"not only within the hearth but above it and on all four sides as well"

[instead of a Kuei] of the toilet

who lick people's heads

who dwell in the bed-curtains, the screen, the rafters, or within the chamber

who cause people to vomit

who gobble excrement

who cause homesickness (?)

who cause evil infections

pp. 116-7 author's calculations

p. 116

on the "two distinct classes," interrogators of aethereal-souls and beaters of spermatic soul : according to the author (M.S.) "the activities of both groups presumably take place while the owner of the soul is asleep, during his dream-life".

p. 117

"Though the named demon-types come (in my [M.S.'s] calculations to 198, the Buddha goes on to tell us that these demons number 60,049 in all."

{Evidently each of these daimon-types hath a little over 300 membres, on the average.}


Daimones in the Meditation-Hall


pp. 120-121 C^ih C^>an-pin Pi-yao Fa ('Secret Essentials for Treating Dhyana Ailments', of 5th century Chr.E), T. 620, 15:341a-b

p. 120

in the time of the Buddha (S`akya-muni) himself :-

"a demon[ess] appeared with a face like a Chinese lute (p>i-p>a), four eyes, two mouths, its {her} entire head shooting forth flames, beating itself under the armpits, and chanting {her own name} "Bhuti, Bhuti." It {she} was like a fireball ... {cf. Joan-the-Wad, the wife of Will-of-the-Wisp}, now arising, now disappearing".

p. 121

"This Bhuti is an evil yaks.i; she is also called the Demon[ess] of Dreams. When you see her in a dream and you have a loss of vital essence {semen virilis} ..."

{I.e., she is an empousa = succuba.}

"in the wilds, it {she} is called the Demon[ess] of the Wilds.

When it {she} dwells between the bed and the coverlet, its {her} name is the Demon[ess] Crawls on Its {her} Belly."

["The demons that attack monks, nuns, laymen and laywomen when they are practicing their meditation at a tranquil place" :-]

"black or red rats that scratch at the meditator's heart or tickle his feet, hands, or ears;

may produce the cries of birds, the moaning ..., or subtle whisperings; ...

fox-phantoms, some of them taking the form of brides, richly appareled, who will stroke and caress the meditator's body and speak of things

contrary to the Law.

Other will appear as dogs, howling incessantly, ...

hawks and various kinds of birds, making all manner of noises, from whispers to great shouts. ...

small children, in ranks of hundreds and thousands -- or ... by tens or fives or ones, twos, or threes -- making various noises. ...

mosquitoes, flies, gnats, lice, or serpents that may enter his ears, humming like a queen bee, or go into his eyes ..."

["With visitors such as these, the meditator may go mad, flee from his hermitage, and run wildly about, quite out of control."]

the 63 daimones in the era of buddha Kanaka-muni :-

[2 names which "resemble ... Deep Sands and Floating Hill"]

goblins & phantoms

"pus-eaters and spittle-eaters,

asses' ears {cf. ass-eared gS`en-rab-mi-po = ass-eared Midas} and

tiger-heads and

kittens' meows,

white rats and



Michel Strickmann (ed. by Bernard Faure): Chinese Magical Medicine. Stanford U. Pr, 2002.