Scriptures, Schools, and Forms of Practice in Daoism


pp. 13-32 Poul Andersen: "Scriptural Traditions West and East".

p. 28, fn. 35 ingesting breaths of sun & of moon -- Yun-ji Qi-qian (= DZ 1032) 23:12b-13b

"The Grand Unity on the days jiawu ... , bingwu ..., and wuwu ..., at sunrise travels downward to the Scarlet Palace and unites his shape with the Perfected and with one’s own body. The Perfected of the Scarlet Palace is the Perfected of the Middle Prime, who resides in the Cinnabar Field in the heart and dwells in the center of the heart. ... the Perfected suddenly unites his shape with that of the Grand Unity. ... Suddenly one also unites one’s shape with that of the Grand Unity."

p. 28 practice of fu-z^an, according to the C^en family secret manual

"eruption out of the priest’s heart of" C^an-s^en Da-jun Z^u-yi Z^en-ren (‘Long-Life Grand-Lord Red-Robed Perfected’)


pp. 33-48 Stephen R. Bokenkamp: "Self and Family in the Tutan zhai".

p. 37 tu-tan z^ai (‘mud[-and-]ashes retreat’)


scriptural reference

aspect of the rite


Don-xuan Lin-bao Wu-gan Wen (‘... ... 5-Stimuli Text’) by Lu Xiu-jin

"Set up a ritual platform on bare earth and place a barrier of cord around it. ...

All are to daub their foreheads with yellow earth,

loosen their hair, and fasten it to the rope barrier.

They should place their hands behind their backs and themselves bind them.

In their mouths, they should hold jade disks.

Lying flat of the ground, they should spread their legs apart and,

knocking their heads to the ground, utter the confession.

During the three times of the day, they face west and

during the three times of the night, they face north."


(ritual prayer based on S^i-jin ode Mao 202)


Disputing Deceptions’ by dharma master Xuan-guan

"One would roll in the mud like a donkey,

smear the face with yellow soil,

pluck off the head [covering?],

hang [the hair?] from a willow

... with the slapping."


Wu-s^an Bi-yao (= DZ 1130) 50:1b5-6

"Hanging our heads and

holding our hair in our mouths

below the railings."


Wu-s^an Bi-yao 50:12a2-3 & 18a7-8

"Holding our hair in our mouths and

muddying our foreheads, as

we smear the five central parts [of our bodies] with earth

below the railings."


pp. 97-116 Florian C. Reiter: "The Name of the Nameless and Thunder Magic".

pp. 112-115 deities according to Wan Wen-qin [at court of emperor Hui-zon of the Son dynasty (p. 108)], in tracts of the Dao-fa Hui-yuan (DZ 1220)


scriptural passage



biography of Wan Wen-qin

"Evil spirits, most notably fox spirits, were ritually forced into a jar and buried".


1220:84.6a sq. -- Huo-lei Xu (‘Fire-and-Thunders Praeface’)

S^en-xiao Yu-di (‘Divine-Empyrean Jade-Emperors’)


1220:84.7b sq. – [ibid. ?]

"breaths of the void in the" S^en-xiao


1220:69.1a sq. – Wan S^i-c^en Qi-dao

"... "Blazing Fire, Heavenly Lord Deng." ... the commanding divinity in a system of fire chariots." [the apotheosis of the hero Den Bo-wen who had helped Huan-di to suppress C^i You, the rebel : Huan-di "was claimed to be the ancestor of the ruling house of the Song dynasty." (p. 114)]


1220:56.10a-11a – [Lei-tin S^en-wei (‘Thunder-Court Divine-Ranking’ -- p. 107) ?]

"the Heavenly Thunder Department kept six amulets and seals in storage. ... their transmission started with" Yuan-s^i S^an-di (‘Origin-Prime Supreme-Emperor’) "... These jade seals were called "jade pivots"" (yu-s^u). These sigils were transmitted [successively?] to the deities Huan-di [‘Yellow Emperor’]; Lei-gon [‘Thunder Lord’ (p. 101)]; Fen-hou.


pp. 117-184 Peter Nickerson: "Ritual Efficacy in Vernacular Daoism".

pp. 142-146 ritual program for performances of "Attacking the Fortress"





qin-s^en (‘Inviting the Gods’)

"to call to the ritual area ... the supernatural beings" : "the ritual master ... blows ... on his "dragon horn."" {cf. the blowing of the s^o^par (shofar) horn}


z^ao-hun (‘Calling the Souls’)

"The ritual master chants in order to call the souls of the deceased into the figurines."


bai-c^an (‘Worship via Penance’)

"the figurines are placed inside the fortress" {cf. entry of spies into inn of +Rah.ab in Yrih.o^}


xin-lu (‘Travelling the Roads’)

"The ritual master undertakes a journey to the underworld, eventually reaching the Fortress of Those Who Have Died Unjustly and, beyond that, the underworld courts ... When the ritual master’s party has reached the fortress, he (or the medium, when there is one) slashes the front open with his "seven star sword" (qixing jian ...), thus "Opening the Fortress" (kaicheng ...)."


bu s^e-z^i (‘Divining for Edict of Pardon’)

"Once the ritual master, the presiding deity, and their retinue have reached the courts of the underworld, ... Standing before the Palace of the Eastern Peak (... in the realm of the shades ...) the ritual master requests that the Edict of Pardon be issued by the Humane and Sagely Great Monarch."


c^u-c^en (‘Exiting the Fortress’)

"The ritual master may then proceed further to ... remove the souls/figurines ... The ritual master ... then directly thrusts ... at the ... fortress so as to knock it off the altar ..., thus "Toppling the Fortress" (daocheng ...)." {cf. the toppling of Yrih.o^ (Jericho)}


c^i-yao (‘Taking Medicine’)

"the ritual master takes up the pot of herbal medicine that has been simmering in front of the image of the Medicine King. One by one, he holds up each figurine and dips its mouth in the medicine so that the soul can drink it ..."


bai-fan (‘Offering Food’)

"a basin of water is placed ... near ... the altar, thus giving the souls the opportunity to bathe prior to their meal."


guo-qiao (‘Crossing the Bridge’)

"the Naihe Bridge ... is eventually set alight and allowed to burn to ashes. ... the souls ... will never again return and trouble the living."


son-wan (‘Sending off the Departed’)

"The procession continues to the temple’s spirit money furnace, within which are placed ... offerings of paper spirit money ..."



"means of transport : white paper lotuses for women, molded ... horses for men."

pp. 147-149 "The chant the ritual master uses as he "travels the roads" to the underworld"

pp. 149-150, fn. 76 Altaian shaman’s journey through 7 obstacles to the underworld, cited from Nikolai A. Alekseev: "Shamans and Their Religious Practices", in:- Shamanic Worlds, ed. by Marjorie Mandelstam Balzer. Armonk (NY): North Castle Books, 1997.

p. __, fn. 76

obstacle on the way to Erlik


"a black stump – a fortune-telling place"


"A black playing field, quivering, /

A square iron threshing floor / ... /

Black tongs endlessly opening and closing; /

A black ringing hammer, /

Black moaning bellows -- ..."


"black ravines,"


"swarms of black frogs,"


"roaring black bears,"


"a boiling black lake, a boiling black hell,"


and the like.


"The shaman’s final destination : ... / ... /

... a palace of black clay / of Kan Erlik."


pp. 185-214 Liu Yi: "Nanzhu guan ji and the Daoist Scriptures of Dunhuang"

catalogues of the San-don Bao-jin




Z^en-ton Dao-zan is of the Min dynasty.


Nan-z^u Guan Ji is an inscription of Ch.E. 749, and was published in English translation by F. C. Reiter in ZDMG 148 (1998):115-48. According to it, though "a great number of texts had not yet been revealed to mankind", those then available numbered 2130 chapters, whereof 1011 were Confucianist.


Bao-pu Zi Nei-pian (Xia-lan) is of Ch.E. 317.


San-don Jin-s^u Mu-lu by Lu Xiu-jin is of Ch.E. 371.


pp. 233-252 Volker Olles: "Stars and Legends"




"Each of the twenty-four dioceses have [sic: hath] a counterpart in heaven, namely, the lunar mansions (xiu), referred to as "upper dioceses"" earliest in the text Tian-s^i Z^i Yi (= DZ 1244), DZS vol. 32, pp. 56a-60c. {cf. the 24 names of naks.atra-s in the several Brahmana-s to the Veda}


Z^u-bu-s^an diocese (in Si-c^uan) : "as an "upper diocese," it corresponds to" the xiu Don-jin (‘Eastern Well’).


"The lineage of the Heavenly Masters found a new center" during the Tan dynasty at Lon-hu S^an (‘Dragon[-and-]Tigre Mountain’) in Jian-xi province.


According to the Li-s^i Z^en-xian Ti-dao (a treatise of the Yuan dynasty), Wan Xin became a Recorder in Pu-jian county (of Si-c^uan) "after he had started consuming calamus." Later, on mt. ‘Lasting Fall’, a jin-c^an (‘golden toad’) "led him into a cave where he received the elixir of immortality." {both c^an-pu (Acorus calamus) and toad-exudations are psychedelic drugs}


According to the Tai-pin Guan-ji, j. 4, vol. 2, pp. 397f., in Ch.E. 733 in Z^u-bu-s^an diocese, the Daoist nu:-guan (‘priestess’) Yan Z^en-jian "discovered a baby boy at the well where she used to draw water ..., and the child turned out to be a fungus" named fu-lin [toadstool as stool for the ‘golden toad’?] : this "fungus was the drug of immortality". [an implication may be that this well is the earthly counterpart to the lunar mansion ‘Eastern Well’]


According, however, to the S^u-z^on Guan-ji, j. 74, in Yin-yi Wen-yuan ge Si-ku Quan-s^u, vol. 592, p. 230b, Yan Z^en-jian discovered at mt. C^an-qiu the Bai-niu Jin (‘White Ox Well’) or Wo-niu Jin (‘Crouching Ox Well’).


ASIEN- UND AFRIKA-STUDIEN DER HUMBOLDT-UNIVERSITA:T ZU BERLIN, Band 20 = Poul Andersen & Florian C. Reiter (eds.): Scriptures, Schools and Forms of Practice in Daoism. Harrassowitz Verlag, Wiesbaden, 2005.