Yuan-s^i Tian-zun S^uo Bei-fan Z^en-wu Miao-jin (‘Primordial-Commencement Heavenly-Worthy, narrating Z^en-wu’s Wondrous-Scripture’ = HY 27)




The queen S^an-s^en (‘Virtue-Triumph’), wife of the king Jin-le (‘Pure-Joyfuf’), "swallowed sunlight in a dream" and upon awaking found herself praegnant. After 14 months of gestation, a boy was born on 3rd day of 3rd month of jia-c^en year (in 60-year cycle), in the 1st year of the Kai-huan [a world-era (kalpa) – p. 85]. "The prince grew to adulthood but refused the throne." After practicing the Dao on mt. Wu-dan for 42 years, "the


prince reached perfection and ascended heaven in broad daylight."

Under orders of the Heavenly Worthy, Z^en-wu "thus loosened his hair, stepped barefoot on a leaping snail and divine turtle of the eight trigrams" as he led a troop of divine beings, beasts & soldiers, to perform his task.

p. 86 #s of generals in the 4 lu (‘registres’) granted





p. 94 the 4 Sages who are all entitled S^an-di (‘Supreme Emperor’)

the sage __

is __-tian S^an-di (‘Supreme Emperor of __ Heaven’)


[Xuan] (Dark )

Tian-pen (‘Heavenly Reed’) [who had 3 heads & 6 arms – fn. 17]

Can (Azure)


Dan (Vermillion)


Hao (Vast)

they are addressed as Emperors during zao-c^ao (‘morning audience’),

as Sages during the wan-c^ao (‘evening audience’)

p. 95 thunder-deities

3 Grand Marshals of Thunderclaps

Den who "had eaten human flesh" [and who was invested with mt Wu-dan -- p. 96]

Xin [who transmitted a ritual code on the 3rd day of the 3rd month – p. 95, fn. 20]


2 Marshals of the Thunder Gate

Gou [who is black, with 3 eyen & red hair – p. 96, fn. 23]

Bi [who is red-faced – p. 96, fn. 23]

pp. 97-98 black tigre

p. 97

pp. 97-8

Dao-fa Hui-yuan (‘Dao-Ritual Corpus’ = HY 1210), cap. 213

Lost Pearls’ 37:1-3, fasc. 831

marshal Liu Wen-xian : ½ his body was flame-surrounded; black tigre followed him

p. 97, fn. 26 Zi-xiao Hu-fa Hei-hu Da-s^en Liu Wen-xian (‘Purple-Empyrean Law-Protector Black-Tigre Great-Deity 5-Thunders’)

Yu-xu S^i-xian Xuan-tian S^an-di (‘Jade-Void Master-Premier Dark-Heaven Supreme-Emperor’) = Z^en-wu

p. 98 Z^en-wu

pp. 98-99 the 4 ‘Generals-on-duty’ (si z^i-jian) & the 4 Marshals – according to the Dao-fa Hui-yuan (‘Dao-Ritual Corpus’ = HY 1210)

p. 98

4 Generals-on-duty -- Dao-fa Hui-yuan, cap. 254

Cui Z^en


Lu Bian


Den Lian


Dou Z^an

p. 99

4 Marshals -- Dao-fa Hui-yuan, cap. 36

Ma Lin-guan (‘Ma Numinous Offician’)


Z^ao Gon-min


Guan Yu


Wen Qion

pp. 100-101 Z^en-wu -- according to the Dao-fa Hui-yuan, cap. 63, 3a-6b




"is the a reincarnation of Lord Lao the Most High."


"He is the lord of the sixth star, Ji, of the North Dipper, the Wuqu".


"He governs two constellations that together form the shapes of a snake and a turtle. The turtle and snake were used ... because "the turtle, armored with the shell, represents defense; while the snake, shaped like a military column with its striking force at the head, represents offense." Therefore they are used to represent the "true martial spirit" or zhenwu".


"When he is in heaven, as one of the Four Sages, he wears garments in black color and a cap of azure jade [can-yu]."


He commandeth :-


jade maidens of the Din



killing-generals (ba-s^a jian-jun)



talisman-agents of the Jia






clerks of talismans




p. 112 the secret writ of home epistles to the Master of the Golden Tower – Fa-hai Yi-z^u (‘Lost Pearls from the Sea of Ritual’ = HY 1158, fasc. 829), cap. 27

in order to submit the home epistle, the priest :-

bian-s^en (‘metamorphoseth into divinity’),

walketh bu-gan (‘Step of the Guideline’),

formeth jue (‘hand-mudra-s’),

knocketh thrice on the tablet of lin (‘command’),

summoneth the 4 clerks-on-duty of the Xuan-tian (‘Dark Heaven’);

[2nd] reciteth the Tian-pen Z^ou (‘Heavenly-Reed Incantation’);

writeth the Talisman of the 4 Functionaries-on-duty;

readeth the 100-character holy appellation of Z^en-wu.

the priest beginneth cun (‘visualizing’) himself as :-

"on a ray of red radiance coming from the heart, accompanied by the four divine functionaries and general-officials",

crosseth a long bridge and arriveth at a 12-storeyed golden tower; having climbed to the top of the tower,

rideth again on the red radiance to cross a red bridge and arriveth at the Z^on-tian (‘Central-Heaven’); walking through the yu-que (‘jade tower’) of the Central-Heaven,

turneth to the right, and cometh to the You-s^en Yuan (‘Court of the Aiding-Sage’) [where (p. 113) he may praesent the epistle to Z^en-wu].

p. 113 similarly -- according to the Revelation Conveyed to the Sages (= HY 957), cap. 7, 17 – the Daoist priest submitteth for Xu a qin-ci (‘green-writ’, i.e. petition written on green paper).

pp. 113-114 cun-si, according to the C^i-son Zi Z^an-li (‘Almanac of the Master of the Red Pine’ = HY 615)


instructions to the priest :-


in front of the altar, prostrate thyself :

ascend to the sky via a treasure-tree-lined 100-mile road of vermilion qi;

there, cross the Yellow Path [Huan-dao (p. 115)] of the Sun & Moon directly; after


5 or 6 miles thou shalt see purple clouds at a distance. Go direct to the purple cloud, and

thou seest the heavenly gate, 18 feet wide. Most of the numerous guards [accompanying thee] stop here, except only that general Z^ou, the functionaries-on-duty, and the jade-lad who submitteth the petition, may come with thee to the tower-gate.

Turn west, pay thy respects to the Ritual Master of Orthodox Unity of the 3 Heavens. Having bowed to him 9 times,

go immediately to the Phoinix Pavilion and enter the door. A divine lad in vermilion clothing and black cap will receive the petition from the Jade-Lad-who-Submitteth-the-Petition.

p. 115 microcosm of the body, according to the Secret Writ (describing ascent to heaven by the red "ray of light coming from the heart")

"Flaming Palace of the Vermilion Hill" (Z^u-lin Huo-fu)


"Bridge of the Grand Ritual for Ascent to Heaven"


12-storeyed tower (s^i-er c^on-lou)


red bridge


heavenly gate


pp. 116-117 lian (‘refining’) of one’s xin (‘temperaments’), or of one’s qi (‘pneuma-s’), for universal salvation by lian-du (‘salvation through refinement’) – according to the S^an-qin (‘Highest Clarity’)

souls are transported upward by __

via the __

to the __

golden boys & jade maidens

"grand ritual bridge to heaven" (s^en-tian da-fa-qiao)

Flaming Palace of the Vermilion Hill


12-Storey Tower

Jade-Purity Realm (Yu-qin Jin)

pp. 117-118 mei-ri c^ao-li (‘daily audience’) to Z^en-wu


meditation-ritual in daily audience : meditate on __


"a bright spot in-between the two kidneys shooting up along the spine up to the back of the head and arriving at the Niwan Palace."

"the golden radiance flashing ..., the radiance spreads and shines in ten directions."

"the Dark Emperor sitting straight in the Jade Mountain ..."


"the "four agents on duty,"

the __

from the __

emergeth through the __




left eye




right eye



lungs & kidneys

2 ears


the practitioner (one’s soul-self), as "a "perfected one", with a "writing tablet (jian ...)" held in both hands, comes out in front from the Yellow Court, kneels straightly and has an audience."

"the golden radiance joining together from four direction[s] as before. The practitioner returns to the Scarlet Palace, looking down between the kidneys, the brightness is very still."


if this is for __

meditate on __


capturing malicious spirits

the Dark Emperor, with loose hair and bare feet


an ordinary situation

the Sage’s happy face


rescuing from misfortune

the Sage’s face to be compassionate

pp. 119-120 "Rituals of the Agents of the Portal of Dao, the 2 Marshals Gou & Bi", in Lost Pearls (= HY 1158), cap. 34 (fasc. 831), 7-8


nei-gon (‘internal efforts’) = meditation-practice


"in the clean water below the navel, ... the turtle (i.e. Heavenly Pass) faces the north and the snake (i.e. Earthly Pivot) faces the south; they exhale two breaths in blue/green (qing ...) and white which come out from the navel. ... The practitioner inhales and swallows [the breaths]


which descend to the "xiantian sinus ..." and then enter the two kidneys separately. The blue/green breath at the left and the white breath at the right together ... with the yellow breath at the middle ... integrate in the Yellow Court at the navel. Then, transport (yun ...) the "fire of the heart" downwards to refine this ...; the awesome radiance [of the refinement] is frightening, and so the "purple golden elixir" is completed.

Transport the elixir so that it ascends along the spine up to the trachea. As it is about to arrive at the top of the trachea [c^on-lou ‘multi-storeyed tower’], take in pure breath ... directly through the root of the nose upward. Meditate on the two deities (i.e. Gou and Bi) riding on two breaths in black and red coming from left and right. They mingle with the two generals coming out from Heavenly gate and Earthly door to stand on the golden radiance. Suddenly they integrate into "internal elixir.""

pp. 140-142 Gui-gu Zi Tian-sui Lin-wen (‘Gui-gu the Master’s Heavenly-Marrow Numinous Writings’ = HY 866, fasc. 579)




cap. 2, 10b

in name of Z^en-wu

transform __

into __






cap. 2, 11b

offerings of hearts of 4 animals :-

wild fox

old ape

wild sparrow

qion-z^i-jiao bird


cap. 2, 13a

results to eater of "golden elixir" (herb-pa^te’ of the 4 hearts) :-













to be done [by general’s chaplain] on the battlefield :

"Face north, set up seven black banners and one drum. ...

prick your tongue {cf. pricking of one’s tongue in honor of Skanda the war-god} ..., bite the drum and wave the banners to the north. Command the soldiers all to call the sacred name [of Z^en-wu] together.

A black wind will come from the north, covering the army; all the soldiers will turn into ten feet tall, blue faced spirit generals of "black killer.""

pp. 157-173 spirits converted by Z^en-wu (in comparison between accounts in the novel Journey to the North and such Daoist accounts as the Collection)


Journey to the North

Collection, et al.


name of spirit before conversion

title of spirit after conversion



Xin Xin "with a ghostly head and three eyes" (gui-tou san-yan) [was hindered from kidnapping old man’s granddaughter]

marshal Lei-aki

(fn. 14) "monstrous figure with demon’s head, bird’s beak, and a pair of wings at the shoulders" who "ascended to heaven as standing on five drums that produce thunder"


Tian Hua who used thunderbolts to strike down such travelers as would not pay fee for passage through his territory

marshal Gou-bi

Gou & Bi


Guan-ze who manipulated the bei-fen qin-qi (‘north-wind pure-breath’)

marshal Z^ou of the Wind-Wheel

grand marshal Z^ou in charge of the Thunder Bureau


Z^an Jian (in Nin-hai praefecture of S^an-don province) who caused smallpox-epidemics and ate children

marshall Z^an of Complete Loyalty

5:12 Z^an Jian (in Nin-hai) who controlled smallpox-plagues and protected children


Xie S^i-ron who can vomit forth z^en-huo (‘perfect fire’), at Huo-yan S^an (‘Flaming Mountain’)

Huo-de Xie tian-jun (‘Fire-Virtue Xie heavenly lord’)

Xie left signatures on pillars by means of thunderbolts; and helped Z^en-wu to defeat Z^u Yan-s^i


Z^u Yan-fu (at mt Kun-lun), having the wu-du dai (5-poisons pouch’) as trap

marshal Z^u, guan da bu-xin (‘Official in Charge of Punishment of Unbelievers’)

Z^u Yan-s^i whose bag was burned by "fire virtue stars" fanned into with the "Carefree Fan"


Hua-guan "who has hurt the Crown Prince of Heaven and set fire to a gate of heaven."

(p. 165, fn. 24) Spirit-Official Ma of Flowers

(p. 164) 5:8b-9a Lin-guan ma yuan-s^uai (‘Numinous Official marshal Ma’)


Dan Gui-ji (at Huai-nin praefecture in An-hui), "who appears in the villagers’ dreams"

[was adopted after his temple was burned down]

[on 5th day of 5th month]


Kan Xi, a marauder-bandit

Ren-s^en (‘Humane Sage’) marshal Kan

5:18b (benevolent)


Pan C^iao (in Gui-z^ou fu) who "lives under a bridge {cf. troll} and eats whomever passes by at night."


Gao Yuan (in west Si-c^uan)

Zi-wei xin (‘Purple Tenuity stat’)

[(p. 167) Z^en-wu "was once a[n] attendant-general of the Emperor of Purple Tenuity"]


5 brethren "who are spirits of five thunder-drums" {cf. supra, p. 157, fn. 14}

[assigned by heavenly lord Den C^en in Palace of Grand Majesty (fn. 26)]


Tian Gui

thunder-deity Xin

Xin Jian (in the "dream of a five-colors brush-pen" by Jian Yan)


Yu Tian, having lon-s^en gui-s^ou ("a dragon body and a ghost head") ; "spirit of the Thunder command tablet [lei-lin]"

[belonging to leavenly lord Z^an]



Ren Wu-bie


Nin S^i-kua



Liu Hou, on Tian-hou s^en (‘mt. Heavenly Fire’), holding "Flying Whip" and riding "Fire Chariot"

Wan-fu tian-jun (‘Royal-House heavenly lord’)

hath studied with Perfect One Luo and so hath learned the wu-lei-z^an jue (‘5-Thunder-Palm mudra’) to catch rain


Lei Qion, who "threw himself into the well to stop other people from drinking" the poisoned water

Wei-lin Wen yuan-s^uai (‘Mighty Luminous Plague marshal’)

Wen Qion

168 & 170

Wan Tie

marshal Wan

4:22 marshal Wan

168 & 170

Gao Ton

marshal Gao

4:22 marshal Gao


S^i C^en, who useth lei-bian (‘thunder-whip’) {cf. lightning as whip of <ali^ (in Nus.ayri dogma)}

S^en-lei S^i yuan-s^uai (‘Divine Thunder S^i the marshal’)

[(p. 170) 5:2 thunder-deity]


Men S^an (in Guan-xi fu), "a merciful prison guard"

to assist Z^en-wu



Yan Biao

Di-qi yuan-s^uai (‘Earth-Spirit marshal’)

5:5b-6a Earth-Spirit Yan Biao the marshal


Li Z^ai-lon

Xian-fen Li yuan-s^uai (‘the Point Li the marshal’)

4:19b-20a Li Fen; also cf. Li Xi of northern Fu-jian


Fu Yin, who useth "a Demon-reflecing mirror that can make a person reel."

Jiu-c^a Fu yuan-s^uai (marshal Fu of Inspections)

Fu Yin (residing at bottom of mt. Tai) "to investigate the country with a golden mirror [jin-jian]"


Tai-bao (13 daimones)

they "turn into 13 skulls" worn by marshal Yin [Gao] the Earth-Office Year-God

"secret ritual of marshal Yin [Jiao] of the Earthly Bureau of the North Emperor", in Dao-fa Hui-yuan (= HY 1210), cap. 47, fasc. 936


Numinous Officer Wan

enshrined at mt. Wu-dan


Tie-tou He-s^an (‘Iron-Head Monk’)

Men-lie Tie yuan-s^uai (‘Burning-Ferocity Tie the marshal’)



pair of thunder-deities


p. 164, fn. 21 Z^u Fan "forced ... ghosts who cause trouble to speak through mediums, to investigate the motivation behind the haunting and judge the corresponding treatment" – according to A Corpus of Daoist Ritual (= HY 1210), cap. 227 (fasc. 933).

p. 165 "typical of the so-called excessive worship of evil spirits [yin-si xie-s^en] ... (... adopting them into Daoism)." {similar adoption in Vajra-yana}

pp. 165-166 "a standard ritual in liturgical manuals ... was Vanquish Temples [of excessive cults]" (Fa-miao-o)

Shin-yi Chao : Zhenwu. PhD thesis, University of British Columbia, Nov. 2002.