the 5-Fury Spirits

pp. 22-23 Nuo rites by summer official of the 4 Fury Men (Kuan-fu) surnamed Fan-xian



rite just before inhumation


Z^ou-li 22:31:5b

"Draped in bear-skins, wearing [masks with] four yellow-and-golden eyes (huangjin simu ...), with their upper bodies clothed in black and lower bodies in red, ... they jump into the open grave, and strike its four corners with dagger-axes to expel the spirits of trees and rocks (fangliang ...)."


Wan Z^ao-yu (during Sun dynasty) : Z^ou-li Xian-jie 27:9a

fan-xian (‘direction-facing’) : "The Fangxiang do their job as four Fury Men. ... Four yellow-and-golden eyes mean that they can see anything and everything."

23, fn. 10

(during Min dynasty) Gu-jin Tu-s^u Ji-c^en 723:17a

"the Fury Men have to be used to expel epidemic diseases from the four directions (sifang)."

pp. 24-26 later developments of rites involving the Fan-xian






Wei : Han-guan Jiu-yi 646:17

Former Han

"added to the Nuo exorcism was the rite of sowing the five grains (wugu ...), to the accompaniment of the shooting of arrows with peach-wood bows and the beating of drums."


Hou Han-s^u Z^i, pp. 3127-9

Latter Han

"twelve beasts were added, in correspondence to twelve specifically-named deities who fought twelve demons ... The targets for expulsion still included the spirits of rocks and trees, which nevertheless began to be called the one-legged kui ...".


Sui-s^u, p. 1698

Northern Qi

z^e-s^en sacrifice "of tearing apart live animals {cf. the similar Dionusiac rite}, mainly goats and roosters. In fact, the ... tearing apart live animals to expel evil elements, called zherang ..., was already mentioned in the pre-Qin text Lu:shi chunqiu ... [C^en Qi-you, p. 122]".


Hou Han-s^u Z^i, p. 3128

Latter Han

"the Great Nuo involved the rite of dispatching torchlights and dropping them into the Luoshui River, performed by a thousand cavalrymen of the Five Encampments (Wuying...) stationed outside the palace gates."

pp. 28-30 the Wu-si (‘5 sacrifices’)



sacrifices to __


Mao Qi-lin : Bian-din Ji-li To-su Pu 142:796-7

deities of :- inner door, stove, impluvium, outer gate, path


Z^ai : Ton-su Bian, p. 426

the Wu-li (5 office-runners [of emperor Yao], to exorcise the 5 Vengeful Gods) = Yu-hua Wu-s^en (‘the 5 Sages of Fish Flower’)

p. 30 the Z^an-men performed the S^e-men rite "to send off bad dreams." (according to Z^ou-li Z^en-s^i Z^u, pp. 162-163)

p. 28 the 3 sons (who died at birth) of Z^uan-xu (according to Wei : Han-guan Jiu-yi 646:17)

son resided __

as __

in the Jian river

tyrannical ghost

in the Luo river

wan-lian yu-gui (mountain goblin)

haunting people’s houses

frightener of children

pp. 35-37 exorcisms in rites during the Tan & Son dynasties



exorcising deities

ghosts to be exorcised


Da Tan Kai-yuan Li (in 12th year of reign of Kai-yuan of Tan dynasty)

the Fan-xian

yi (‘pestilence’),

mei (‘daimon’),

bu-xian (‘bad fortune’),

men (‘dreaming’),

gu (insect’)


er-lan wei MSS. from Dun-huan (Dun-huan Yi-s^u Zon-jiao)

Z^on Kui & the Wu-dao Jian-jun (‘5-Paths Generals’)

of the 4 gates,

of unhealthy sons,

of country sheds,

of market-corners,

of thin diseases,

of bandits,

of night-foxes


Huan Gon-jin (during Southern Son), in Dao-zan 18:92:2-93:1; 18:94:2

Wen Qion

the 5 Fury Agents of Plague, subordinate to Jin-jian Gu-du Z^i-s^en (‘Gold Cocoon Poison God’)

pp. 37-38 subordination of Wu-c^an in theologies during the Yuan & Min dynasties



commanding deity

the co-subordinates under the same deity

correlations (correspondences) of the co-subordinates


(of the Yuan dyanasty) Xin-bian Lian-xian Sou-s^en Guan-ji, pp. 118-9

Z^ao Gon-min

the 8 Kingly Valiant Generals

the 8 Divination-Diagrams


Cardinal Deity of the 6 Poison[-Banners]

heaven, earth, year, month, day, hour



the 5 Directions



the 5 Elements


(of the Min dynasty) Hui-tu San-jiao Yuan-liu Sou-s^en Da-quan, pp. 183-4

Da-nai Fu-ren (‘Madame Big Breast’)

Wu-c^a Da-jian (‘5-Fury Great-Generals’)


pp. 110-111 litany from the Qin Tan C^an Z^ou (‘Incantation Invoking at the Altar-Ground’)




Tu-z^u (‘Earth-Lords’)


the 3 Saintly Thearchs of Wan (incl. his 8th & 9th sons)


the Wen-xiao (‘Civil-Filial’ [viz., Min dynasty]) emperors


Wu-xian Lin-guan Da-di (‘5-Manifestations Divine-Agent Great-Thearch’)


5th Saint Thearch Z^an


cardinal Master of Red Mountain


cardinal Master of Long Hair


cardinal Master of Bringing Rains


Saint Emperor Guan


general Z^ou Bao


general Guan Pin


marshal Ma


marshal Z^ao [black-faced, riding black tigre (p. 127)]


marshal Yin


marshal Liu


Miss Gold Flower


Nice Lady of Plum Blossom


Madame Snowflake


Divine Agent of He-he


Divine Agent of Li-s^i


Kai-yin Ton-zi (‘Boy of Opening Pure Voice’)


Qu Yuan, etc. (in Dragon Boat)

p. 111 surnames of the Wu-c^an (‘5 Furies’)





Ge [Z^on-hua ‘China’ (p. 112)]

p. 114 forms of Wu-c^an (according to the Qin Tan C^an Z^ou, p. 11)



Who Captureth Souls at the Crossroad

Who Cannot Reach Heaven

Who Cannot Reach Earth

Who Hunteth in the Mountains

with Flying Sand & Soaring Rock

Who Eateth Fresh

Who Eateth Fried

at the Left Altar

at the Right Altar

at the Upper Altar

at the Lower Altar

at the Central Altar

p. 144 the colors, respectively, of the faces of 5 bandits (who while looting the house of Mu-lian’s father Fu Xian were converted by their miraculously talking horse and) who were deified as the Wu-c^an gods






p. 150 sets of 5 Sages each according to Han-z^ou scholar (Chr.E. 1524-1574) Tian Yi-he : Liu-qin Ri-z^a, pp. 536-537)

"What is nowadays called the General of the Five Ways is actually

the God of Robbers (daoshen ...) ... originated from the chapter "Rifling Trunks" (Quqie ...) in the Zhuangzi ..."


Moreover, in popular lore there are the __ Wu-s^en (‘Five Sages __’)

You-fan (‘Wandering-All-Directions’)

S^u-tou (‘of the Tree-Tips’)

Hua-hua (‘All-Flowers’)

pp. 151-154 satires against greed




"expressed in satires of "money delirium," ... in writings of the literati, popular songs, and vernacular literature such as the novel Plum in the Golden Vase ... All this was fashioning a powerful current of condemning money (zhoujin sichao ...).

Zhao Nanxing ... ([Chr.E.] 1550-1627) ... penned a book titled Annotated Jokes (Xiaozan ...) ... One of the jokes, called "In Quest of the Sutra," plays on the theme of the Journey to the


West ... : ... The commentary says : ... there is a Celestial Money Star (Tianqian xing ...). ... when the Cowherd [Altair] wedded the Girl weaver [Vega], he borrowed twenty thousand coins from the heavenly Emperor. Because he didn’t pay the money for a long time, he was banished to the yingshi ... (the constellation of Aquila)."


"the late-Ming opera Han Xiangzi Immortalizes Han Yu [Nine Times (p. 153, fn. 119)] tuned to the Yiyang ... music style, particularly popular in the Huizhou region" : "Han Yu ... who had for centuries exemplified both Confucian morality and scholarship, is ridiculed for his "greed" for "glittering gold and silver." ...


Han Xiangzi ..., conceived of as a nephew of Han Yu’s in popular mythology, is one of the well known Eight Daoist Immortals. ...

Han Yu ... wrote a widely read piece called "Sending-Off-Poverty Essay." In this essay, he ridiculed himself for having been haunted by five ghosts (wugui ...) of poverty – poverty in intelligence, in scholarship, in literature, in fate, and in friendship." (Han Yu : "Son-qion wen", pp. 570-2)


Gu Yan-wu "cited a sarcastic account from the Wanli edition of a Shexian gazetter ... : "... The rich became richer, and the poor poorer ... Gold’s decrees ruled Heaven, and the money god loomed over Earth." (MQHS, pp. 23-4 [#58])

p. 155 distinction between the Wu-c^an and theWu-ton



are worshipped in Hui-z^ou

are worshipped in Su-z^ou

"policed the lonesome wives left alone at home."

"a sexually insatiable goblin"

p. 169 distinction between 2 sets of deities of wealth (according to Yin et al. : Z^on-guo Gu-dai Gui-s^en Wen-hua, pp. 46-9)

set : the __ Cai-s^en (__ Gods of Wealth)

included __

Z^en ( "impartial" or "just")

marshall Zhao & Guan-di

Pian ("partial" or "devious")

Wu-lu (god of the) ‘5 Paths to Wealth’

CHINA RESEARCH MONOGRAPHS, 55 = Qitao Guo : Exorcism and Money. Center for Chinese Studies, Institute of East Asian Studies, U of CA, Berkeley, 2003.