Exorcism in Daoism, 6-7


pp. 89-104 Terry Kleeman : "Exorcising the Six Heavens : Traditional Deities in the Daimon Statutes of Lady Blue".

p. 90 Daoist designations (according to "DLS^") for deities of official state-cult

in Daimon Statutes

in state cult

"Ten Thousand Foot Demon of High Heaven", who is surnamed Huan (‘Imperial’)

"Supreme Thearch of Lofty Heaven"

"Keeper of the Talisman Demons of the Five Directions"

"the Five Thearchs"

"Together, these gods comprise the most exalted deities of state cult, ruling over the Six Heavens as identified by the Latter Han commentator Zheng Xuan ... ."

"DLS^" = Wan Zon-yu : "Dao-jiao De ‘Liu-tian’ S^uo". DAO-JIA WEN-HUA YAN-JIU 16 (1999):22-49.

pp. 91-4 primordial divine heavenly authorizations of exorcism

p. 91

[quoted from DZ 790 Nu:-qin Gui-lu: (Daimon Statutes of Lady Blue) 2/1a] "The Statutes of the Most High of the Upper Three Heavens of Great Purity, Mysterious and Primordial charges the Leaders of the Three Offices of Heaven, Earth, and Water : "When August Heaven was first born, only gods were honored. ... Now you should record and distinguish the names of the demons in order to establish the gods of the three levels and five directions to control the demons."

p. 92

[quoted from DZ 1127 Lu Xian-s^en Dao-men-ke Lu:e ("Master Lu’s Abridgement of the Daoist Code") 1a-b] "the stale pneumas of the Six Heavens claimed exalted office and assembled the hundred sprites ... . ... The Most High ... for this reason bestowed upon the Celestial Master the Way of the Correct and Unitary Covenant with the Powers ... . He established twenty[-]four parishes, thirty-six quiet huts, two thousand four hundred inner and outer Daoist priests, and then thousand petitions to send down to the one thousand two hundred officers ... to ... clearly rectify the cosmos ... . ... He banished all thoughts of interdictions and ruled the citizens with the pure covenant :

The gods do not eat or drink, the master does not accept money."

p. 93

[quoted from DZ 335 Tai-s^an Don-yuan S^en-z^ou-jin ("Dongyuan Scripture of Divine Spells") 19/1a-2a] ["of the fifth century" Chr.E. – fn. 9 : "the first ten" chapters are, "and not of Tang date, like chapters eleven through eighteen."] "The Primordial Heavenly Worthy was in the Palace of Eternal Joy in the Land of the Hall of Great Blessings, together with the Divine King ... of Limitless Sagacity, both seated on thrones of seven-colored precious mist in order to transmit the Great Exorcistic Scripture of Divine Spells Piercing the Abyss. He summoned the ... Divine Spell Kings ... and the Flying Mysterious Marvel Great Heavenly Perfected Great Gods to proceed to the throne. ...

The Lord of the Dao said : "This region for seven billion five hundred thousand kalpas was a world of extreme joy ... . ... The stale pneumas of the Six Heavens allowed the nine uglies, tree sprites, and wicked goblins ... to thrive."

At this time, the Heavenly Worthy proclaimed that the Five Venerable High Thearchs should summon and command the Great Devils of the Ten

p. 94

Heavens, the leaders of the Three Realms, ... to collect and seize all demons who had escaped from their rosters. ... The Perfected Kings of the three Heavens ... will parade along the borders of the state, healing illness for all of the people, aiding the correct pneumas of heaven ..., and rescuing the lives of sentient beings."

pp. 95-6 exorcistic power in knowing secret names

p. 95

[a "spell that believers are counseled to use whenever they must pass through an area with ... malefic spirits", quoted from Den-z^en 2/13a] "I am a disciple of the Most High. Below, I command the Six Heavens. ... I know the names of the palaces of the Six Heavens, and for this reason, I will live forever."

p. 96

[quoted from DZ 790 Nu:-qin Gui-lu: 1/1a-b] "The Most High Great Dao ... At the noon hour one the seventh day of the seventh month ..., ... sent down this Demon Statutes in eight scrolls, recording the surnames and names of the spirits of the realm ... . He charged the Celestial Master with it, causing him to command the spirits ... . Since then, when men or women of the Dao see my secret scripture and know the surnames and names of demons, ... myriad demons will not interfere with them and the thousand gods will submit to them."

p. 96 daimones act at the behest of the human Caelestial Master

[quoted from DZ 790 Nu:-qin Gui-lu: 6/2a] "Now I dispatch the five leaders, each in charge of ten thousand demons, to spread through the realm, ... eliminating the ill-omened and evil."

p. 97 "Here we see that the demons are acting as agents of heaven in their depredations."

p. 97 daimones of gate & door

p. 97, fn. 15

[quoted from DZ 790 Nu:-qin Gui-lu: 3/9b] "I announce to you demons of gate and door, as well as the well and the hearth, and ... along the fences : ... You should only aid the Dao’s transformations and drive away evil demon lords."

p. 97

[quoted from DZ 790 Nu:-qin Gui-lu: 4/2b-3a] "The two preceding demons are the Sire of the Gate and the Attendant of the Door. During the day they are gods who bless the home; at night they become demons."

pp. 98-9 daimones who are officials of the netherworld

p. 98

"the aforementioned Ten Thousand Foot Demon of Lofty Heaven is said to ascend to Heaven once each month to answer questions and set punishments ... .


The next demon ... is the Southern-facing Three-Venerable Demon ..., who also has the ... name Demon of the Five Paths ..., and is in charge of the various records and rosters of the dead, and of investigating ... the living ... . ...


In chapter six of the Demon Statutes [DZ 790:6/6b] we meet other figures of the subterranean administration who occur on excavated grave documents, like the Sire of the Tomb ... and the Attendant of the Tumulus ... . The same chapter also lists the Demon of Sepulchral Plaints ..., who is presumably responsible for adjudicating lawsuits from the other world."


[quoted from DZ 615 C^i-son-zi Z^an-li ("Petition Almanac of Master Redpine") 5/14b-15a] "I further request that the Talisman Intendant send an announcement down to

the Three Offices of Heaven, Earth, and Water,

the Rescript of Lady Blue,

the Two-Thousand-Bushel [Officer] Below the Earth,

the Tumulus Attendant,

the Sire of the Tomb,

the Marquis of the Twelve Sepulchers,

the twenty-four prisons of Mount Tai,

the nine level prison of August Heaven,

the earth prisons of Eastern Marchmount Mount Tai,

the Southern Marchmount Mount Heng,

the Western Marchmount Mount Hua,

the Northern Marchmount Mount Heng, and

the Central Marchmount Mount Song, the

p. 99

earth prison of the Northern Capital Coldland, ...

and the dead who have been exiled."

p. 100 results of good deeds

# of good deeds

result for the doer


"hearts will be settled and bodies at ease."


"their pneumas and strength will be powerful and robust."


"their bodies will have no illness."


"they will get what they seek."


"they will flourish with wealth and status."


"their descendants will be prosperous and numerous."


"when they encounter an unlucky period, they will escape it."


"the gods and .luminaries will protect them."


pp. 105-35 Volker Olles : "The Ritual Canon Fa-yan Hui-zuan and the Fa-yan Tan Tradition".

p. 105 Liu Yuan

"The Qing dynasty scholar Liu Yuan ... (1768-1856; style a.k.a. Neru ..., Qingyang ..., Huaixuan ...) developed a unique system of thought, merging Confucian learning with ... practices from Daoism ... . He was born in Shuangliu ... District southwest of Chengdu ..., the provincial capital of Sichuan ... ."

pp. 107-8 the 2 religious denominations in Sic^uan

p. 107

"Many Daoist priests inSichuan were affiliated with the Liumen movement and used the Fayan Huizuan scriptures in their ritual activities. They constituted ... the ... Fayan tan ... (Altar of Ritual Words).

p. 108

... the Fayan tan was one of the two major branches of householder Daoism in Sichuan, with its priests being married ... .

The other branch, Guangcheng tan ... (Altar of Master Guangcheng) ... was founded by Chen Zhongyuan ... (18th/early 19th century; Daolst name : Fuhui ...; a.k.a. Yunfeng Yuke ...). Chen hailed from Xinjin ... District south of Chengdu. ... Chen’s foremost achievement is the compilation of a huge collection of ritual texts".

p. 110 Yan Xion

The title "Fa-yan Hui-zuan" is imitated from the title of "a Confucian work from the Han dynasty : Fayan ... (Model Sayings) by the philosopher Yang Xiong ... (53 B.C.E.-18 C.E.), who hailed from Chengdu."

pp. 111-2 editions; and dating of original composition, of the Fa-yan Hui-zuan

p. 111

"A block-printed edition in five volumes and a later supplement, Qishu dingbu ... (Model Texts for Invocations and Statements, Revised and Supplemented), have been reprinted in the Zangwai daoshu ... (Daoist Texts Outside the Canon) collection. ... . ... the avoidance of the character xuan ..., which occurs in the personal name of the Kangxi ... emperor (r. 1661-1722), Xuanye ..., would suggest a Qing dating of this edition."

p. 112

"Liu Yuan was obviously not the author of the Fayan huizuan. ... So the statement of Liu’s authorship at the beginning of each chapter must not be taken literally, but as a sign of his patronage." {Similarly as the common ascription of authorship of the Huai-nan-zi to the governor of that province must not be taken literally, but as a sign of his patronage.}

pp. 107, 113 praeceptors of Liu Yuan & of Fan Dao-hen

p. 107

"Liu Yuan studies with a Daoist hermit. He met Yeyun Laoren ... (Elder of the Wild Clouds), an old man selling medicinal herbs ... . After Yeyun Laoren had disclosed the essentials of self-cultivation to him, he became the disciple of this mysterious old man, who is regarded as an incarnation of Laozi within the Liumen tradition." [vide :- "LLM", p. 125]

p. 113

Fan Dao-hen wrote :

[quoted from ZWDS 946, vol. 30, p. 459ab] "I served the teacher Neru (i.e. Liu Yuan) ... and followed the teacher Tao Daofu on his travels. My teacher (Tao Daofu) ... once roamed the peaks of Mt. Qingcheng, where he received transmission from the Refinement Master Chen Yunfeng. ... Thereupon, [my teacher Tao Daofu] collected liturgical manuals. He obtained fifty scrolls, and [this collection] was named Fayan huizuan."

"LLM" = Volker Olles : "Lord Lao’s Mountain". J OF DAOIST STUDIES 2 (2009):122-9.

p. 114 Dragon-Gate (Lon-men) lineage-poe:m

"The character fu ... appears in one line (yi yang lai fu ben ...) of the Longmen lineage poem. [fn. 22 The full text of this poe:m is to be found in ZWDS 953 (Lon-men Z^en-zon Jue-yun Ben-z^i Dao-ton Xin-z^uan), vol. 31, p. 421b.]

The name of a Longmen Daoist always contains one of the successive characters of this poem to indicate his or her generation.

Fan Zhisheng (Fuyuan) would in this case belong to the same generation as Chen Zhongyuan (Fuhui), ... who appears as "Chen Yunfeng" in Fan Daoheng’s introduction. ... Fan Zhisheng was the father of Fan Daoheng."

p. 115 process of compilation of the ritual canon Fa-yan Hui-zuan

"First, Tao Yuanqing (Daofu), who had received (textual) transmission for Chen Zhongyuan (Yunfeng) on Mt. Qingcheng, collected the Daoist texts. ...

Second, Fan Daoheng, following his father’s instructions, facilitated the publication of the canon. ...

Third, the ritual texts were revised and edited by ... Liu Fen".

pp. 116-7 the Guan-c^en & its relationship to the Fa-yan Hui-zuan

p. 116

"Chen compiled a voluminous collection of the Daoist ritual texts titled Guangcheng yizhi ... (Ritual Systematization of Master Guangcheng). [fn 30 : "Guangcheng yizhi is ... ZWDS 421-695 (vols. 13-15)."] The title is generally understood to refer to the court Daoist Du Guangting ... (850-933), whose sobriquet was Guangcheng xiansheng ... (Elder of Wide Achievement) and who also used to stay on Mt. Qingcheng. Du was a famous writer and compiler of Daoist texts, in particular liturgies."

p. 117

"It is quite obvious that Chen Zhongyuan’s work and the Guangcheng tradition constituted the basis for the compilation of Fayan huizuan ... . Yet, ... there is also considerable divergence. Differences in the ... wording of the texts as well as in the arrangement of rituals attest to the originality of Fayan huizuan."

p. 119 spirit-writing

"The texts ... to be found in the Collection of Sacred Scriptures ... published for the first time in 160 by Liu Yuan’s disciples ... have prefaces by various deities, which were received through spirit-writing."

p. 119, fn. 37 abbreviations of text is not permitted

"In his admonitions to the Fayan tan priests, Liu Xianxin emphasized that it is not permissible to simplify or abbreviate any liturgical text, including the ritual documents."

{"And if any man shall take away from the words of the book ..., God shall take away his part out of the book of life, and out of the holy city, and from the things which are written in this book." (Apokalupsis of Ioannes 22:19)}

p. 120 secret

"Only a part of the fa, the ritual methods, is explained in the Fayan huizuan canon. The details of these esoteric techniques, beginning with the hand gestures (jue ...), are passed on by means of secret manuals and oral instruction. The transmission of fa thus remains an exclusive domain of the Fayan tan priests."

p. 121 the 3 Treasures

"Daoists frequently invoke the Three Treasures (sanbao ...) : the Dao ..., the Scriptures (jing ...), and the Masters (shi ...).

Interestingly, in the Fayan huizuan canon the Three Treasures are mostly identified as Dao, jing, and fa ... ."

p. 121 separate transmissions {cf. the "Parting of the Way"} for Way & for Ritual

"The erudite patriarchs of the Liumen community and advanced initiates can only transmit the Dao (essential method of self-cultivation) and the Scriptures (jing) to their disciples. ...

{The Acharya imparts to him the ten precepts ... . After ... instructed in the precepts he is called S`raman.era. ...

Only the transmission of the Daoist liturgical methods (fa) is confined to the circle of Fayan tan priests."

Then the Upadhyaya invests him ... . After this ... he ... becomes an Upasampanna Bhiks.u." ("IE7C", p. 104)}

[quoted from Huan : Fa-yan Xue-xi Ji-lu, p. 2] "The person who transmits the Dao does not transmit ritual methods; the person who transmits the ritual methods does not transmit the Dao. This is the division ... between the Way and Ritual."

"IE7C" = "Indian Education in the 7th Century A.D. (from the account of I-tsing, 672-88 A.D.)". J OF THE UNITED PROVINCES HISTORICAL SOCIETY, vol. 4 (1923), pp. 97-122. http://books.google.com/books?id=PwdDAAAAYAAJ&pg=RA1-PA104&lpg=RA1-PA104&dq=upadhyaya+upasaka&source=bl&ots=9PmCycb4ZX&sig=vYCr8Vb-5kqJmp9SR

p. 122, Table 3 standard progamme of a litourgical festival (sa[crifice to], pe[tition to], su[mmons to], ad[monition to])



Fa-yan Hui-zuan cap. #


sa. Stove-God



pe. City-God



pe. the 10 Kings of Hell



pe. Sovereign of the Earth



pe. Emperor of the Eastern Peak



pe. Numinous Ancestor of the Dipper Entrance



pe. Emperor of the Underworld



su. the Departed



pe. Caelestial Worthy Who Relieveth Suffering



pe. Thundre-Ancestor



pe. the 3 Primes



pe. Dipper-Palace



walking along the Guideline



pe. Most High (Lord Lao)



circulating the benches of the 10 Kings of Hell



ad. the Departed



sending off the Saints


p. 125 visualization in the Ritual of Cutting the Rope (Duan-s^en Ke-yi) a.k.a. Refinement of the Departed (Lian-wan)

[as described in chapter 43 of the Fa-yan Hui-zuan (ZWDS 946, vol. 30, pp. 660a-661b), along with Huan : Fa-yan Xue-xi Ji-lu, pp. 39-45] "He visualizes Lingzu, the Numinous Ancestor, descending from above and protecting him, and then the priest’s own body merges with the luminous shape of Lingzu. ...

He then stands in the diagram’s center, his left foot resting on the sign of the kui star, while he visualizes the Most High (Taishang) protecting him.

Reciting the invocation of the Nine Sovereigns (Jiuhuang gao ...), he visualizes the nine stars of the Dipper sinking into his body."


ASIEN- UND AFRIKA-STUDIEN DER HUMBOLDT-UNIVERSTITA:T ZU BERLIN, Band 36 = Florian C. Reiter (ed.) : Exorcism in Daoism. Harrassowitz Verlag, Wiesbaden, 2011.