Foundations of Daoist Ritual







Praeserving the One & Residing in Harmony

Tsai Yen-zen



Daoist Thundre Magic (Wu-lei Fa)

Florian C. Reiter



The 8 Immortals from New Scripture

Philip Clart



The Way of the Locust Tree Studio

Volker Olles



Ritual Theory of in Work of Lu Xiu-jin

Gil Raz



Ritual from 2nd through 6th Centuries

John Lagerwey



Z^i-jiao Fast of Caelestial Master

Lu: Pengzi



Gesture & Meaning in Jiao Rites

Stephen R. Bokenkamp



Secret Incantation of Northern Thearch

Terry Kleeman


artt. 1 & 3



Praeserving the One & Residing in Harmony: Z^u Xi’s Instruction

Tsai Yen-zen


p. 5 an alias dictus of Z^u Xi (1130-1200 Chr.E.)

"on the Zhouyi cantongqi, ... he subscribed an alias, Kongtong daoshi zouxin ... ... . ... In the Zhuangzi, Kongtong is an imaginary mountain where the Daoist immortal Guangcheng Zi ..., aged twelve-hundred years, dwells and gives lecture ... to the Yellow Emperor. [fn. 17 : "Zhuangzi, "Zaiyou"; see also Guo Qingfan, Zhuangzi jishi (Taipei : Guaya, 1991), 279-384."]

p. 5, fn. 18 Guan-c^en Zi & Huan Di

"According to the Lao Zi bianhua jing, discovered at Dunhuang, Lao Zi went through various transformations ... and assumed different names in Chinese history."

in the era of mythic emperor __

he was named __


Guan-c^en Zi

[Huan Di] ‘Yellow Emperor’


"Su Shi (1037-1101) ... wrote a commentary on the conversation between Guangcheng Zi and the Yellow Emperor". (reference :- Su S^i : Guan-c^en Zi Jie, in Guan-c^en Zi Jie Wai San-z^on. Taipei : Xin-wen-fen, 1987.)



Daoist Thundre Magic (Wu-lei Fa)

Florian C. Reiter


p. 28 initiation by deity

Wan Wen-qin "(early 12th ct.) allegedly received his initiation from the deity Mother of Lightning Dianmu ... ." ("PSDWW")

"PSDWW" = F. C. Reiter : "A Praeliminary Study of the Daoist Wan Wen-c^>in (1093-1193)". In :- ZEITSCHRIFT DER DEUTSCHEN MORGENLA:NDISCHEN GESELLSCHAFT 152/1 (2002), p. 158, referring to DZ 1250 C^on-xu Ton-miao S^i-c^en Wan Xian-s^en Jia-hua 1a

p. 29 avian deities

"The compendium A Corpus of Daoist Rituals (Daofa huiyuan ...) contains the Hidden Documents of Radiance of Thunder of the Anterior Heaven Xiantian leijing yinshu ... that present an extended version of the Spell of Lord Wood Mulan zhou ... containing the phrase "red cock and purple swan, soar far without boundary". Here Bai Yuchan ... (fl. 1209-1224) explains that "the Thunder books of the Tang Heavenly Master Ye Fashan show the Amulet of the Red Cock and Purple Swan. You can .. expose the amulet in a south-eastern location in a water jar and recite the Spell of Lord Wood. ..."" (DZ 1220:87.12a)

p. 31 description of the Thundre-god special general Z^an Yuan-bo [Z^an] Jue, "the Divine Lord of the Rising Sun who controls and Commands the One Breath" Yi-qi Z^an-lin Yan-gu S^en-jun

"If we speak of the outer form of the divinity in terms of Posterior Heaven,

[Zhang Jue] has

the beak of a phoenix, round [bird] eyes,

red hair, wings in his armpits and

a red body that is covered all around with golden letters and texts in heavenly seal script.

He feet are like dragon claws, and

his head carries a Tianding .. cap.

He wears a red shirt and a green wind belt.

His left hand holds tightly the tablet Order of the Heavenly Emperor.

His right hand holds the sacrificial flag that orders and summons Thunder divinities.

He stands towering over the constellation well jing ..., [meaning the element] wood and [the emblematic animal] tapir." ["DTh"]

"DTh" = F. C. Reiter : "The "Discourse on the Thundres" by Wan Wen-c^>in (1093-1153)", p. 227. In :- J OF THE ROYAL ASIATIC SOC 14/3 (2004).

p. 32 ritual internal alchemy

[DZ 1220:83.3a-b] "I force the breaths to return to the centre of the heavenly joints where they remain congealed ... . ... I only see golden radiance evolving in front of me. ... Rays shoot into my eyes, and then I see a golden character ... at the entrance of the dipper where it creates one halo of golden radiance like the rising red sun."

p. 33 arrival of the emissary-deity (in Corpus of Daoist Rituals, cap. 83)

"Then ... the [spirit] emissary ... takes shape out of the extreme ultimate and has an endowment of vital energies [of the star] Lianzhen [fn. 32 : "DZ 1220:82.18a-b has the star Lianzhen to be the heart "on the inside", whereas on the outside the heart is the star Pojun (Beidou)."] in the Northern Dipper. The emissary emerges like a golden crow that soars to the entrance of the Dipper ... . Now, the ritual master ... shouts the sound of the one character hong .. . The emissary of the Gold Elixir Jindan shizhe ... passes through the heavenly orifices of the Posterior Heaven and enters the kidneys (shenhai ...) where he whips the dragons. ... . ... Gold-Elixir emissary to "ascend Mount Kunlun where he ... mingles with the external [cosmic] messengers ..."."

pp. 33-4, 37 golden crow [& implied golden deer] (in Corpus of Daoist Rituals, cap. 83)

p. 33

"the world will know ... the night demons amidst the thunders and the black crows in the clouds. {cf. Scottish "Ravens and the Black Rain"}

There are black crow and (in India) black deer – both perhaps forms of the "black sun".}

p. 34

"the Heavenly Mother Marici in front of the sun. In front of her ... there is a halo of golden radiance that melts with the sun. A golden crow is inside [the golden halo] and seems to fly away but does not do so."

{/Marici/ is, in Samskr.ta, the feminine (cf. doe-deer mother of Quetzalcoatl?) of /marica/ ‘golden deer’; cf. sun as deer (albeit white) on p. 33 of Codex Borgianus Mexicanus.}

p. 37

"A priest who employs the spirit patronage of Marici holds a register containing the names of the divinity and her subordinate charges ... . Otherwise [according to DZ 1220:90.7a] "one would just now know who the [spirit] messenger is"."

p. 35 circulating the elements (in Corpus of Daoist Rituals, cap. 83)

[quoted from DZ 1220:85.7b-8a]

"arouse the water of the kidneys to rise up to the Mud Pill [Palace] (niwan ...).

From the Bridge of the Immortals (xianqiao ...) moving downwards, you guide the divine water of the Flowery Pool (huachi shenshui ...) to water the fire of the heart.

You expel the fire of the heart to descend and enter the Ancestral palace together with the water of the kidneys so as to amalgamate and form a [spirit] infant (yinger ...) [in the Ancestral Palace]. The infant ascends and honours the sphere of the god-emperors."

pp. 36-7 consecrating a talisman

p. 36

[abbreviated from DZ 1220:91.2b-4b]

"ancestral vital energies ... thrust open the Gate of Heaven (tainmen ...). ...

Golden Radiance ... (jinguang ...) ... swoops down on the writing paper so as to form the real shape of the [Thunder emissary] (shi zhe zhenxing ...) who actually constitutes { consecrateth} the amulet.

The left hand of priest forms the mudra^ Thunder office whereas the right hand holds the writing brush. ... . One strong sweeping stroke {done to attach the Golden Radiance to the ink being drawn onto the paper} completes the body of the amulet (futi ...) that is not presented in a dispersed form (sanxiang ...). ... .

... the Thunder emissary ... is now on the paper and has the might to speed away. Finally, some secret of identity {of the Thundre-emissary?} are added ..., and two

p. 37

wings {for a hint to the emissary’s to fly away} are also indicated. The priest now thinks of the emissary as he [the emissary] soars off to do his duty."

pp. 40-1 people become thundre

p. 40

[quoted from DZ 1220:67.15] "all the intelligent, upright and meritorious people of past ages who ...

p. 41

fostered a mind that was bent to help man and nature ... dissolved their body and evaporated they afterwards became divinities of Thnnder and thunderclaps".

p. 41 how yin-yan action produceth lightning

"The yin-energies wrap up the yang-energies so that they cannot escape. It is for this reason that one uses the true energies of the gang-stars to crash against the yin-energies and lead out the yang-energies. ... The true astral energies trigger the force of lightning and actually cause the changing appearance of yin and yang" (according to DZ 1220:67.16a-b).

"The ascent and descent of yin and yang lead to the clashes of potentials that produce the sound of thunderclaps" (according to DZ 1220:67.19a).

p. 42 invocation of the red crow

[quoted from DZ 1220:92.3b-4a] "Red crow, red crow, carrier of wind and fire. Black demons within the Thunder, night demons outside the clouds, receive the orders [from the] god-emperor of the North. He endows you with the command at cinnabar dawn. Come quickly ... . ...

Kangmin zi Hua ... son of emperor Ku ... and grandson of emperor Zhuan ... : today I summon you to proceed quickly. Home of Thunder ... act urgently as this is law and order by the patriarch ... ."

p. 42 Thundre-deities of the Lineage

"in the remarkable chart Lineage (Shixi ...) and in the subsequent tract Historic Reality (Shishi ...) ... attributed to Bai Yuchan [DZ 1220:82.23a-29b] ... Zhurong ... and Yuguang ... are the first and second sons of Taihao. ... Huangdi’s posterity includes Shahao ..., Jiaoji ... and Diku ... . The last name is connected with Longyan ... who fathered Fufeng heili ... and Hua Hanji ... . ...

Yuguang, the second son of Taihao, is identified with the Thnnder divinity Marshal Deng of Blazing Fire ... ."

According to Bai Yu-c^an [DZ 1220:82.26b],


is identical with __

Xin Han-c^en

Hua Han-c^en, the 2nd son of Lon-yan

Z^an Yuan-bo

Z^i S^ou-min, the son of Fu-fen Hei-li

p. 43 natural residences of Thundre-deities

within the human body [according to DZ 1220:82.28a]


hath as residence the __ (organ)

Den S^uai


Xin S^uai


Z^an S^uai


within the night-sky [according to DZ 1220:82.23b]


is __

at __ (constellation)


Fire Official

Southern Dipper


"God-Emperor of the Smoky Department"


pp. 43-4 development of the Qin-wei (‘Pure-Subtlety’) tradition of Thundre-magic

p. 43

"Qingwei Daoism explicitly continued Thunder Magic and Shenxiao ... Daoism. ...


Since the very beginning, the Qingwei group displayed a grand lineage. The book Great Method and Original Revelation of Pure Subtlety Qingwei yuanjiang dafa ... starts the lineage with the Emergence and Circulation of Qingwei at Prime Origin (Yuanshi qingwei yingyun ...)."

p. 44

"The book Zhai-Methods ... of Pure Subtlety ... introduces [DZ 224 Qingwei zhaifa 1.1a] the Qingwei palace where the Heavenly King of Prime Origin (Yuanshi tianwang ...) revealed the mysteries to Yuchen daojun ... and Taishang laojun."


ASIEN- UND AFRIKA-STUDIEN DER HUMBOLDT-UNIVERSITA:T ZU BERLIN, Band 33 = Florian C. Reiter (ed.) : Foundations of Daoist Ritual. Harrassowitz Verlag, Wiesbaden, 2009.