Marriage with God


2. Korean Shamaness

2.1. Main Tenets of Shamanism

pp. 46-60

2.2. Maerim Kut – Initiation Rite

pp. 60-69

3. Change of Blood

3.1. Engrafting of Sun Myung Moon

pp. 70-86

3.2. Ritual Sex in the Church

pp. 87-104


2.1. (pp. 46-60)

p. 47 shamanesses

"Female shamans are common in the Manchurian region, broadly defined ... . Female shamans predominate in both Korean and Japanese shamanism. The Korean female shaman (Mudang) does have a male counterpart (Paksu), but ... In Japan all shamans (itako) are females."

pp. 49-50 Tungus shamanism

p. 49

"According to the Tungus and Manchu shamanistic world view the shaman must take care of the spirits, feed them and handle them ... . ... Among the Tungus of Manchuria the number of spirits with beginners is five or six,

p. 50

while by the end of a good career all spirits are mastered directly or with the assistance of other spirits. The number of spirits is also a measure of the shaman’s or shamaness’s power". [Shirokogoroff, pp. 271-2]

Shirokogoroff = S. M. Shirokogoroff : Psychomental Complex of the Tungus.

pp. 53-6 divine spirit-spouse

p. 53

"It is very common that this main helping spirit is the spirit wife or spirit husband of the shaman or shamaness. It is this spirit husband or spirit wife who has chosen the shaman or shamaness to his or her calling and this spirit spouse sends other spirits to help them. Many shamans and shamanesses tell in the morning that they had sexual union in the night with their spirit husband or spirit wife. This phenomenon occurs ... among the Buryats, and the Nanais on the lower Amur river and among Burmese and Korean shamans and shamanesses. For instance the white Buryat ... [Krader 1978, p. 199]. ...

p. 54

Nanai shamanesses are similarly visited by male spirit with whom they have sexual relations. More references to a sexual relationship between the shamans or shamanesses and the spirits are found in different parts of Siberia, for instance among the Yakuts, Shors, Sel’kups, Chukchee and Teleuts. [Vitebsky 1995, pp. 57-8, 105; Siikala 1978, pp. 260-1, 316]


According to the traditional Burmese world view it is possible for nats to have sexual

p. 55

intercourse with humans." [Spiro 1967, pp. 157-62, 205-17]


"Among the Saora tribesmen of Orissa ..., a shaman is chosen by the direct intervention of a female spirit, marriage with whom effects the new priest’s dedication. ... Among the Saora ..., a shamaness will marry a man ... and will bear children ... . But in order to gain her shamanic power she will also marry a spirit husband ... . He is the spirit son of her predecessor, who is also her own aunt. The shamaness in turn will bear {in a dream?} a spirit son who will marry her successor. ...


Among the Arctic Chukchee the sexually normal male often has a spirit wife who is considered to take part in everyday life of the family ... . [Lewis 1989, pp. 53-4]

p. 56

Also Korean shamans and shamanesses tell about their sexual unions with a divinity. A Korean shaman Chong Kyong-ok had all his life sexual encounters with deities." [Cho 1981, pp. 79 & 84]

Krader 1978 = L. Krader : "Shamanism ... in Buryat Society". In :- V. Dio`szegi & M. Hoppa`l (edd.) : Shamanism in Siberia. Akade`miai Kiado`, Budapest.

Vitebsky 1995 = Piers Vitebsky : The Shaman. : Duncan Baird, London.

Siikala 1978 = Anna-Leena Siikala : The Rite Technique of the Siberian Shaman. Helsinki.

Spiro 1967 = Melford E. Spiro : Burmese Supernaturalism. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs.

Lewis 1989 = I. M. Lewis : Ecstatic Religion. 2nd edn. Routledge, London.

Cho 1981 = Hung-youn Cho : "Die Initiationszeremonie im koreanischer Schamanismus". MITTELUNGEN AUS DEM MUSEUM FU:R VO:LKERKUNDE HAMBURG.


2.2. (pp. 60-69)

p. 63, fn. 85 a shamaness’s experiences

"A modern Korean shamaness Park Hi-ah tells about her experiences ... ." [These include : "In one unforgettable dream journey, a white unicorn with wings took me through the Milky Way to an incredible, infinite space of deep, jet-dark indigo." "I saw the paintings of the deities disappear and reappear as real living beings. ... Then, suddenly, all the spirit warriors depicted on the iconographs came into my body." ("IHP")]

"IHP" = "Interview with Hi-ah Park"

pp. 63-4 Korean shamanic marriage of a mortal to a deity

p. 63

"intimate union of ... the male god and the Mudang or the female god and the Paksu. ... The mystical union between god and shamaness or between goddess and shaman is primarily sexual. ...

Usually it takes several years for the shaman or shamaness for prepare for this kind of intimate relationship with god or goddess. This period of preparation for the reception of spirit is known as the possession illness sinbyong. The possession illness lasts in average about eight years but it can take even thirty years. Through the long illness ... the shaman’s or shamaness’s body and mind become ... receptive to the ... spirit. ...

p. 64

The shaman or shamaness will never have a normal life without getting married to god or goddess. The formal wedding to god or goddess is absolutely necessary to reintegrate his or her experience ... . This wedding with god or goddess is called Naerim kut or Gangsin kut ... [Lee 1981, pp. 171-3]. ... The Naerim kut is analogous with the formal wedding with god or goddess who has appeared in the shaman’s or shamaness’s initiation dreams. ... Formally initiated shamanesses are married to god and most of their sexual activities take place in dreams" [Lee 1981, pp. 180-1].

Lee 1981 = Jung-young Lee : Korean Shamanistic Rituals. Mouton Publ, The Hague.

p. 67 Korean shamanic helping-spirits

"helping spirits can be called upon at the se’ance called kut by dancing, chanting and beating of the drums. The shaman or shamaness has hung iconographs of all the helping spirits in his or her god house called tang (a miniature "shrine") on the walls and on the altar. All together these guardian spirits are called Monju." [Cho 1982, pp. 35-6]

Cho 1982 = Hung-youn Cho : Koreanischer Schamanismus. Museum fu:r Vo:lkerkunde, Hamburg.


3.1. (pp. 70-86)

pp. 72, 74 leadership by women in Pyong-yang

p. 72

"In Pyongyang Rev. Moon met Pak Wol-yong and arrived at her place on June 4th 1946. Ms. Pak was leading a .. group ... . ... Rev. Moon decided to stay in Ms. Pak’s spiritual group in Pyongyang. He was serving and obeying her completely ... . ...

p. 74

Ms. Chong had a sexual relationship with Moon ... . Some time later she learned that "Teacher Moon" had already had the same ceremony with Pak Wol-yong, before she did with him. The words used by Ms. Chong were yongch>e-rul padatta (literally it means "received a new spiritual body"). ... After Ms. Chong had received the yongch>e from Moon, she was ordered in a revelation to become kyomo ("a religious mother") for South Korea. The discussed the revelation with Pak Wol-yong ... . She negotiated with Ms. Pak and not with Moon which indicates that she considered Ms. Pak as the real leader of the church." [Choe 1993, pp. 145-9]

Choe 1993 = Joong-hyun Choe : The Korean War and Messianic Groups. diss, Syracuse U.


3.2. (pp. 87-104)

pp. 93-4 shamanic bodily dismemberment/reconstitution

p. 93

"Hwang Kuk-ju ... during the 1930s ... received a special revelation and claimed that his neck had been cut and that his head had been replaced ... . He said : "My head was replaced ...; my blood by ... blood; my mind by ... mind; all changed ... ." ... He set up a prayer house in

{This bodily dismemberment followed by reconstitution is characteristic of Siberian dreams indicative of attaining shamanhood.}

p. 94

the Samgaksan Mountain, where he taught and practiced the exchange of spiritual body yongch>e through ritual sex. [Choe 1993, p. 170; Min 2005, pp. 437-9] ...

{Ritual sexual intercourse is performed during initiation into the Caelestial Masters sect in Si-c^uan.}


Hwang Kuk-ju brought into the community of Lee Yong-do the doctrine of changing the blood ... through the sexual intercourse."

{S`aiva siddha-s are likewise said to transmute their blood.}

Min 2005 = Kyoung-bae Min : A History of Christian Churches in Korea. Yonsei University Pr, Seoul.

pp. 97-8, 100 leadership by women in the process of induction of new members through sexual relations in Seoul

p. 97

"Ms. Chong Tuk-un ... in Pyongyang got a revelation from God and left for South Korea at the beginning of 1947. ...

p. 98

Stationed at Mt Samguk, north of Seoul, she successfully convinced quite a few people of her religious mission. Among those who converted to her was Pak Tae-son. ... In February 1949 she was invited to stay in ... Pak’s house in Susaek near Seoul ... . At this place a few young men and women were having yongch>e or pigarum ceremonies with her. ... Pak Tae-son’s group had installed separate rooms in the basement ... in which men and women had sexual intercourse. These rites drew a large number of people to the movement." [Chun 1990, p. 16]

p. 100

"Ms. Kim Nam-jo was called "Prophetess of Chongjin" ... . All these female spiritual leaders could transfer their divinity or a new spiritual body or new blood to their male followers through a yongch>e or pigarum ceremony."

Chun 1990 = Young-bok Chun : "The Korean Background of the Unification Church", In :- Michael L. Mickler (ed.) : The Unification Church. I : Views from Outside. Garland Publ, NY.


Kirsti L. Nevalainen : Marriage with God : Shamanistic Rite of the Unification Church. [Tampere :] Mediapinta, 2009.

{Inasmuch as the shamanic sexual activities described occur purely in "dreams" (p. 64), this fact alone must vitiate any direct likening of shamanism with Unification Church sexual activities, which (as described in this book) do not so occur. The Unification Church is more alike to the Family of Love (Children of God) than it is to shamanism, in this regard.}