Na-xi & Mo-so, III

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

pp. 237-274 Anthony Jackson & Pan Anshi : "The Authors of Naxi Ritual Books".

p. 238 term for ‘priest’ in the several tribes

p.

#

tribe

term for ‘priest’

238a

1st

Na-i

daba

 

2nd

Na-hen

haba

 

3rd

La-re

daba

 

4th

Ruan-ke

to^-mba`

 

5th

La-luo

to^-mba`

238a-b

6th

Tan-lan

to^-mba`

238b

7th

Na-xi

to^-mba`

pp. 238-239 pictographic art-styles of the Na-xi (enumerated in sequence descending Golden Sands river)

p.

town

details

239a

Lu-dian

use phonetic go^-ba`w script; originated from Tai-an

238b

Tai-an

use phonetic go^-ba`w script

 

Bai-s^a

use phonetic go^-ba`w script

239a

Bai-di

cave of A`>-mi` S`i’-lo^

239b

Bao-s^an

divination is popular

p. 247a erroneous assertion by the author (Jackson only)

to^-mba` "were probably previously Buddhist monks"

[This could not be the case, for the content of Na-xi books is uniformly Bon, not "Buddhist".]

"a host of some newly invented demons."

[These are identical with antient Bon tradition, not "newly invented".]

[pp. 284-285 contrary to Jackson, Anchi accepted the Bon nature of Na-xi literature]

{The Na-xi religion should ante-date the Tan dynasty (the only dynasty which controlled Tajikistan), when it was transplanted to colonies in Tajikistan in order to form the "Bon" religion which is attributed to there. The Mo-so religion may be still older.}

p. 251b numerics of divinatory objects

28 stars

37 cards

49 omens

9 frogs "for the nine directions."

p. 252a names of the 7 za`w (‘planets’)

planet

name

sun

N~i^-ma^>

moon

La`-wua^

Jupiter

P>o^>-bo`>

Mars

Mi^-ma`

Saturn

Po^--mba`

Venus

Pa^-sso^

Mercury

La`-pa’

p. 272, n. 90 magic mirror recovering soul of the dead

Ssa^w-la`-a^>-pa` "was a legendary Naxi man whose soul was stolen" by the daimones, "after he had died of hunger and thirst.

His soul was reflected on a mirror, which was then brought back by his three sons who went to look for it.

They subsequently became ill and were advised" by the 3 po^>-mbo`> on mt. "Sumeru" to perform caerimonies "to have their life gods return."

---------------------------------------------------------------------------

pp. 275-310 Pan Anshi : "The Translation of Naxi Religious Texts".

p. 286, Table 6 – Yi sacred texts similarly titled as Na-xi sacred texts

Story of the Flood

To Search for Medicine

Story of A-s^i-ma

To Worship the God of Snow

To Propitiate the Dragon-King

To Worship for Good Harvest of Grains

To Sacrifice to the Dragon-King for Rain

To Invite the Gods

To Call the Soul of the Deceased

To Deliver the Ancestor’s Soul

To Guide the Road [for the deceased]

To Offer or to Apply Medicine

p. 286 [Yi] sunie = [Na-xi] ssa^n-n~i`

p.

sunie

ssa^n-n~i`

     

286a

"The sunie ... were ordinary persons who ... have been possessed by a

Lu^>-bu` "had long, flowing, dishevelled hair ... to speak to the dead ... They wore red turbans". {= long-haired S`aiva priests for the red cemetery-god Rudra}

286b

 

"They performed all kinds of feats : licking red hot ploughshares {viz., as priests of K>wua`, who wielded a plough as weapon – p. 318b} ... or washing their face in boiling water."

 

sunie" daimon "that caused ... loss of mind."

worshipped a god named Ssa^n-do^

pp. 287-305 Propitiation of the O^ Daimones of Quarrel and Slander

p.

MS p:v

   
   

2 gates of heaven

   

on the __

__ gate of heaven

287

1:3

left

big

288

1:4

right

small

     
 

2:7

divinations by the tribes

   

__ divination

by the __ tribe

   

mutton-scapula

Ni^u-ni`u

   

chicken-bone

Lu’-lu^

   

cowry-shell

La^>bu^

   

string

Gu:^-dzu`

       

289

 

which ½ of the nychtheron is under which deity

   

during the __-time

household ought do as __ doth

 

3:4

day

god Ndu`

 

3:5

night

goddess SSa`>

       
 

4:3

how long the Ssu’ (life-god) protected each of the 2 gendres

   

protected __

for __ days

   

men

9

   

women

7

       

290

 

appurtenances of the naga Lu^>-mu^n Ssu^-ssu`>-szi^

   

at __

appurtenance

 

5:4

high mountain

deer & serows

 

5:5-6

Yu`-gyi`-ku:^

house of naga-s

 

5:7

white alpine meadow

flower Nyi^-ba`w-p>e`r

 

6:1

black lake

fish

 

6:2

high snowy range

tree Hoa`-szi^-ma`n-ngo^-ssi^ (wherefrom are made combs)

       
   

appurtenances of the water Ssu` serpent-spirit Ssu` gyi` ma^n

   

at __

appurtenance

 

6:4

black mountain

white spruce (wherefrom are made shingles)

291

6:5

black valley

green bamboo

 

6:6

hill

forest

       
 

6:8

how not to interfere with deities

   

quarrel not against the 1st heaven Ssu^-bu^-mbe^r-yu`-mua^n

   

fight not against the 1st earth Ma^>-ma`-khi^-za^w ("who is in control of the wild animals.")

       

292

 

those who, in the beginning, came forth (some in pairs)

 

8:6

P>e`r

   

Ssa`n

   

Na^w

   

Wu`

   

O` & Ha`>

   

Ndu` & Ssa`>

 

8:7

those who measure lengths & those who measure distances by paces

 

8:8

to^-mba`

 

9:1

Du` & Ssu` daimon-chief

   

Ha^w-zo^-nu:^-ku:’ & Ss^-zo^-nu:^-ku:’

 

9:2

supreme god Ssa`w-yi^-wua^-de^

   

Ssu` serpent-spirit

   

human beings Dzi^ & Ts>o`

       

293

 

whence originated various entities

   

entity

its origination

 

9:5

trees

hair

 

9:6

mirror

water

   

arrow

mountain

   

grain

grass

   

silver

Dshi’-p>e`r-k>o^ (white-soil cave)

 

10:1

gold

valley Lo^-c^>u`n-k>o^

   

turquoise

quicksand-spring O`-gyi`-ssu’

   

carnelian

snow mountain

 

10:2

antediluvian ancestor Dzi^

Mua^an-nu:^-t>o`

   

conch-shell

lake Lu:^-yu`-khu’

   

yak

black valley Dsa^>-lo`-na`

   

horse

centre of land Du`>-lu’>gu:^

   

ox

Ssu’-k>o^-yu`

 

10:3

sheep

white alpine meadow Ko`-gu:^-p>e`r

   

goat

Nda^w-yu`-ndze`r of evergreen oak

   

hound

spur Ssa^n-nyu`-ku:^

   

pig

Ts>u^-k>o^>-gyu`

   

chicken

wheat-chaff nest P>ue^-mbue`-ndu:`

       
 

10:6

mothers of various entities

   

mother

entities

   

Ssa`w-yi^-wua^-de^

the gods P>e`r & Ssa`n

   

the 9 male makers of the heavens

   

the 7 female makers of the earth

   

Gu^>G-yu`-Gu^>G-ku’>-ku’>

the stars

   

rainbow

   

Gu^>G-yu`-Gu^>G-p>u’>-p>u^>

the clouds

   

wind

294

11:1

Gu^>G-ndzi`-ko^-la’>-ma`>

crane

   

eagle

   

Mua^an-go`-hu’-szi^, the stomach sent by K>o^-ki`-k>o^-lo^-zo^ from heaven

trouble

illness

darth

 

11:2

mt. Nyu`-na’-s^i’-lo^ Nyu`

all mountains

   

wish-granting tree Ha`-yi^-boa^-da`w-ndze`r

all trees

 

11:3

golden rock Dsa’>-dsa^>-ha`-lu:^-ma^>

all rocks

   

lake Mua^n-lu’>-nda^-gyi` Ku’>

all waters

 

11:4

Boa^-du`>-ds^-le`r-z^e`r

leopard

   

tigre

   

the Z^e^r- La^ daimones

 

11:5

K>wua^-tu:`-bue^-ma^>

all domestic & feral animals

 

12:1

Nnu`>-ndzi^-dshi`-bu`

nnu`> & no’n

   

protectors of domestic animals

   

O`-ndzi^-dshi`-bu`

all grains

 

12:2

K>o^>-du:`-gu:^-ssu^

naga Ssu^-ssu`>-szi^

   

K>o^>-du:`-gu:^-le’r

human ancestors Dzi^ & Ts>o`

295

12:3

queen of the Ssu` serpent-spirits

dragon Lu:`

 

12:4

Mi^-ma`-ssa`>-do^

the Du:` daimones

   

the Dsa`> daimones

   

Ku^>-za`w-na`-mu^n

the Ts>u` daimones

   

the Nyu` daimones

 

12:5

Lu:^-ma^>-mu^n-Gu^>G

the Mu^n daimones

   

the Gu^>G daimones

 

12:6

Lo^-ndo^-k>o^-ts>u`-c^>o’u

the K>o^-Ndshi^ daimones

 

12:7

Lo^-ndo`-c^>o’u-ts>u`-mi’

the C^>o’u-Ndshi^ daimones

 

13:1

Ma`>-ssa^>-to^-mbue`

the To`-Mbue` daimones

 

13:2

Mua^n-lu`>-go^-ssa`w

the Ndo`-Kyu`> daimones

 

13:3

To’-ssu^-k>o^-nu:`-ma`

the To’- Ndo` daimones

 

13:4

Go`-ku:^-go`-mbue`

the Ku:`-Ts>u` daimones

   

the Lu:`-Ts>u` daimones

 

13:5

Na`n-z^i^-dso^-bu^

the Te`r-La^ daimones

 

13:6

Yu`-ndzi^-a^>-dzi^

the Ts>u`-Yu` daimones

   

Gu^>G-ku`>-lu:^-le`r

the Nyi^- O^ daimones

 

13:8

O^-ma^>-mi^u-no^ (the father was O^-p>e’r-mua^n-ndu:`)

the O^-Ts>u` daimones of quarrel, slander, and gossip

       

296

 

entities which, "In the beginning of time" [p. 295], came forth

 

14:1

the evil Na`-pa^

 

14:2

T>a’-pa^

 

14:3

Lo`-gu`>

 

14:4

Gu`>-ssa’w-ssa’w

 

14:5

the 4 sons & 5 daughters of trouble & quarrel

 

14:6

the Nu:^-t>o-lu:^-be^r, 9 rocks of trouble & quarrel

 

14:7

the 4 legendary sons of trouble 7 quarrel,

who had created hu’, pu’, dshi^, go`, & ssu’

       
   

origins of trouble & quarrel

   

__ was bringer of trouble and quarrel

to __

 

15:1

stars & moon

yak & pig; & one’s relatives

296-7

15:2

hound with white feet

horse with white hooves

297

15:3

"the rock of trouble and quarrel fell upon the earth from heaven"

people

       
   

who fought against whom

   

the __

fought against __

 

15:4

mountain

valley

   

house

cliff

   

flat land

hill

   

rice

wheat

   

people of the white land

people of the black land

 

16:1

yak

tigre

 

16:2

tigre’s father

tigre’s son

 

16:3

ancestor Ta’-tsa’n-ts>o^-za`w

people of Ssu’ clan

 

16:6

man-soldiers

man-soldiers

   

woman-soldiers

woman-soldiersr

       

298

 

functions lacking (in mythic era)

 

17:5

"one conflict or one quarrel would not come to an end in ten days." {so, are there since then 10 Commandments for 10-day cycle?}

 

17:6

"No green grass grew where poor people dwelt."

 

17:7

"cremation was not performed"

 

18:1

"the morning star could not be seen"

   

"Turfs of grass could not be taken out of the grassland."

 

18:2

"the headless black demons in their thousands could not [walk]." [(18:4) Instead, "The headless black demon rode the donkey across the horizon."] {cf. Kemetian ‘horizon’ as death-realm}

 

18:5

"Before trouble and quarrel came forth in the human world,

headman had no cattle." {confiscated from quarrellers?}

299

18:6

"Before sickness came forth,

food was not offered to gods Ndu` and Ssa`>."

       
   

Ts>o`, the ancestor of humans, as originator of epidemics

 

19:4

As soon as K>o^-ki`-k>o^-lo^zo^ "in heaven blew the yak horn three times and beat the drum three times, Ts>o` had to cut down three forests and fetch the water of three rivers. That caused the flood.

   

... The Nde^r demons of epidemics came forth among the cattle.

 

19:5

People have since suffered from illnesses such as winter jaundice and summer intestinal pain.

   

The crops have since had diseases such as blanched rice and broken-leaf wheat."

       

300

 

who fought against whom, ever since the Nu:^-t>o’-lu:^-be^r (nine rocks of trouble and quarrel) came forth

   

the __

fought against __

 

20:2

white people

black people

   

Ss^ people

Ha^w people

 

20:3

god Du`

daimon-chief Ssu`

   

antient hero Do`-ssa’w-no^-tu:^

the Ssu` Naga

 

20:4

the caelestial P>e`r sons who created heaven

the Du:` daimones

   

the terrestrial Ssa`n sons who created earth

Mu^n daimones

 

20:5

god Ha`>

the Ts>u` daimones

   

the Ho` clan

Ma`> clan

 

20:6

the Ssu’ clan

Yu` clan

 

20:7

the domestic animal

the feral animal

       
 

20:8

"On the land between the white land of the gods and the lack land of the demons, three plum trees grew silver, golden, turquoise and carnelian flowers."

       
   

who fought each other, ever since [21:2] "When the rock of trouble and quarrel fell from heaven, the black hawk flew from the tree."

 

21:3

hens

   

cocks

 

21:4

sons

   

fathers

   

mothers

 

21:5

neighbors

       

301

 

the 1st murder, ever since which animals have fought for flesh

 

22:3

god Du` killed the daimon Ssu` "by stabbing his flesh and shedding his blood in a jar." {cf. Malay confinement of daimon-insects to jars}

 

22:4

That daimon’s flesh "was scattered to join ... the white clouds where the cranes did not fight."

   

in the __(region)

__ have fought for flesh

 

22:5

high snow mountains

leopard & tigre

 

23:1

hills where the bracken-fern groweth

elk & serow

 

23:2

forest

feral swine & bear

 

23:3

mountains where the pine-tree groweth

deer & musk-deer

302

23:4

valley where there is pine-wood

stone-pheasant & white-pheasant

 

23:5

field & grassland

fox & wildcat

 

23:6

lake

fish {cf. insect-bait "fly" in fishing}

       
   

disposition of the daimon’s flesh (brought by the "messenger bat" [carnivorous? – or insectivorous if the daimon were an insect?]), enabling manufacture of weaponry :-

   

the flesh of the daimon was brought to __

where those denizens cut down __

in order to make __

 

23:7

the white gate of the land Bod.

3 white oak forests

strong bows

 

23:8

the red gate of the Nda^w-du`> of the black people.

3 pine forests

strong crossbows

 

24:1

alpine meadows

3 forests

100 kot.i spears

 

24:2

land where oak-trees grew

3 forests of oak

100 kot.i suits of armor

 

24:3

alpine meadow where yellow bamboo grew

the bamboo

1,000 arrows

         
 

24:4

The flesh of the daimon by brought by a daimon "across the black spur.

   

The Dzi^ and Ts>o` people fought with each other . The three sons of Ts>o` were dead.

 

24:5

The butterflies fought for the flesh and the blood" of the daimon.

       

303

 

when in the beginning of time, when the P>e`r (who created the heaven) and the Ssa`n (who created the earth) came into being :-

   

the __ came forth

when the __ had not as yet come forth

 

25:1

human world

the daimones

 

25:2

Na^w & Wu` spirits

Du:` & Dsa`> daimones

 

25:3

gods O` & Ha`>

C^>o’u & Dshi^ daimones of slander, quarrel, abuse, and insult

       
   

thefts of animals by deities, such that "The hawk gave a cry." :-

   

the __

stole __

and tied it under the __ tree

the __ struck the tree

 

25:6-7

1,000 headless black daimones

white horse

spruce

thunder

 

26:1-2

son of god Du`

goat

yellow oak

earthquake

       
   

losses of property :-

   

the __

lost __

303-4

26:3

the 9 caelestial sons who created heaven

axes, in the mountain of the O^-daimones, where there were 9 forests

304

26:4

the 7 terrestrial daughters who created earth [who wished "to feed the fish in the water of the O^" daimones – 26:5]

cups, in the water of the O^ daimones

 

26:7

the 9 caelestial sons

turquoise

 

27:2

the 7 terrestrial daughters

gold

 

27:3

the 9 La^ deities

white armor

 

27:4

great god Ha`>

9 white-hoofed horses

 

27:5

the 9 Boa^ people

white jackets, on a crossraod

 

27:6

people

yaks

305

28:2

people

white sheep

       
 

28:7

Nyi^, O^, K>u^, Mbu^, Kyi’, and Tkyi^ daimones were all released.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

pp. 311-342 Michael Oppitz : "Ritual Drums of the Naxi".

pp. 312-314 Asking To^-mba` S^i’-lo^ for the Ability to Destroy the Daimones To’ & Ndo`

p.

text

   

312a

sent to heaven to beseech To^-mba` S^i’-lo^, is La^-wu’-la`-ssa`w-zo^ [the messenger-god who "is said to live on the meat of the unicorn, to carry an ever-burning torch and a bag full of food that never empties, and to ride on a white horse in company with the bat Ha`-yi^-dzi^-boa^-p>e`r, mounted on a female garud.a-bird." (p. 314b)]

   
 

objects given to To^-mba` S^i’-lo^

 

by __

was given __

 

by 4 deities (Na^w, Wu`, O^, Ha^>) in the 18th heaven

ta^-be^r-le`r (d.amaru) hand-drum as big as the sun

 

ds^-le`r cymbal as big as the moon

 

green jade drum o` ha`r nda^w-k>o`

312a-b

white conch-shell du:^-p>e`r

312b

99 scriptures

 

his own father La`-bu^-t>o-ko’

jewel-mounted hat [helmet] with a iron top

 

his own mother Ssa^w-za`w-le`r-dzi’ Gyi^-mu^n

black boots that can conquer ["trample" (p. 315a)] all daimones

   
 

the 3 drums made by the very wise deity Mi^u-khu`>, each drum being made out of the pine trees, which only he could see, at mt. Nyu`-na’-s^i’-lo^

 

altitude on that mt. of the trees

animal whose skin became its drum-head

__ nda^w-k>o` drum

was beaten toward world of the __

 

top

green dragon

green jade

gods

 

middle

golden elephant

golden

humans

 

foot

p. 314a black pig La`>-tkhi^-ssi^-p>u^ "which was the king of the ghosts"

blackish jade

ghosts

   
 

further ritual objects

 

location of its origination

object

314a

Pumi tribe in the south

cymbal made by 9 skillful silversmiths

 

oceans A’>-dsa^>-go^-dsa^> Khu’> & Go^-dsa^>-lu:^-yu`> Khu’>

conch-shell to be blown

314b

ocean Mua^n-lu’>-nda^-gyi` Khu’>

conch-shell to be fashioned by Ku:’-szi^-nyi^-szi^, and threaded by a lady who dwelt at the sources of the river Ta`-gyi`, into necklaces (worn only by those to^-mba` who have reached their 61st year -- p. 315a)

   
 

pupils of To^-mba` S^i’-lo^ who descended with him from heaven

 

T>a’-bu^-t>a`

 

Szu`-bu^-t>a`

 

P>o^>-bo^>-mi^-c^>i’-di^-do^-t>a`

pp. 318-320 Ts>o`-mbe^r T>u^ (‘The Descent of Man’)

p.

text

   

318a

the 2 creation-sequences

 

from a primal __ egg

white

black

 

is hatched a __ hen

white

black

 

who layeth 9 pairs of __ eggs

white

black

 

when are hatched both __

the deities

all daimones

 

and __

to^mba` & lu^>-bu`

the tribes (Yi, Pumi, Eya, Na-xi)

   
 

events immediately following the double-creation

 

heaven & earth [are separated], [by god Ndu` & goddess Ssa`> (p. 318b)]

 

heaven & earth are mutually stabilized [held apart] "by means of a central prop, the universal mountain" Nyu`-na’-s^i’-lo’ ("the huge mountain of S^i’-lo’ ")

318b

"From the breath of heaven and the steam of the earth three dew drops are generated which form a lake."

 

Out of this lake emergeth a being whose descendants in the sixth generation are Ts>o`. together with his 4 brethren & 6 sistren.

 

2 of these sistren committed incest with 1 of the brethren, namely with Lu’>-Gu>G-k>wua`, who caught in a trap Bu`-nyi’-s^i`-du:’ (‘pig with yellow snout’) belonging to Ndu`, knocked down Ndu` "with a plough" {cf. Hala-yudha ‘having ploughshare as weapon’ = Sam-kars.ana = Bala-rama}, and beat up Saa`> "with her own walking stick."

   

318-20

the 2 "drums" (that of K>wua` being properly a "belly-float", as discussed on p. 330 – it may be noted that pig-skin is air-tight, and is used for inflated footballs, where other animals skins would not retain the air so well) [-- text on p. 319; variants on p. 329 from variant text on pp. 322-328]

318b

made by __

Ts>o`

K>wua`

 

from (as material) __

9 [var. 1] yak-skins [9 for a coracle, not needed for a "drum" (p. 331a)]

1 pig-skin [var. of Bu`-nyi’-s^i`-du:’]

 

drum [var. belly-float] sewn with __

small needle & large thread

large needle & small thread

 

and tied with 3 ropes

[var. by 1 rope of iron, 1 rope of hide, 1 ordinary rope] {cf. ropes tying the toddler Dama-udara (‘rope-belly’ brother of Hala-yudha) between 2 trees of different species}

[var. by 1 rope of iron, 2 ordinary ropes]

 

to a __ on one side

juniper-bush

oak-tree [var. chestnut-tree]

 

and a __ on the other side

fir-tree [var. spruce-tree]

pine-tree

 

with, as inserts into it, the objects __

9 or 10 kinds of grains, goats, hounds, chickens [var. silver goat & golden sheep, golden chicken & golden hound]

(useless things) [var. (bad things)]

320a

result :

navigated through deluge in the sealed ship; Ts>o` afterwards emerge by cutting a hole though the ship with a sword [var. long knife]

was struck by lightning at outset of deluge {cf. destruction of Dvaraka by deluge}

   
 

wooden people {cf. wooden people in the Popol Vuh}

320a

"Ts>o` ... took a bow three steps long ..." {cf. Pinaka bow of Pinakin = Pinochio}

320b

"the god Ndu` ... modelling for him some human-like beings from rhododendron wood. They have tongues but cannot speak; they have eyes but cannot see; they have arms but cannot move them. ,,,

 

And in anger he hurls one of the wooden statues against a cliff where it turns into the Echo."

   
 

"several pairs of offspring" of Ts>o` and his wife dwelling "high up in heaven on the cliffs right under the stars", she having her eyen "standing vertically one above the other" {as, apparently, in a flounder viewed from the wrong perspective?}

 

pine & oak

 

pig & bear

 

monkey & chicken

 

snake & frog

   
 

marriage of Ts>o` to daughter of Dzi^

 

at the "border" between the white land of the gods and the black land of the daimones, the daughter of Dzi^ came in the form of a white crane to carry Ts>o` upward into heaven,

 

where he was met and was put through suitability-tests by Dzi^, passing them.

 

Dzi^ thereupon sent off the couple back to earth, supplied with a copious dowry :-

9 riding-horses

7 pack-horses

9 pairs of oxen for ploughing

7 pairs of oxen for raking [harrowing] the fields

9 to^-mba`

7 lu^>-bu`

many grains

 

They "descend via a silver ladder and a golden chain down to earth".

p. 331b how A’>-mi` S^i’-lo^ crossed the river

He "was once called to the chief of the Mu clan in Lijiang,

in order to heal the chief’s wife.

On his way from Baidi he had to cross the Yangtze river

and when the ferryman refused to transport him

on account of his impoverished looks,

A’>-mi` Shi’-lo` boarded his drum and crossed the river safely."

p. 335b S^i’-lo^ na`> Mi^-la^ gu` gu` (‘Contest between S6i’-lo^ & Mila[-raspa]’), recorded in MS. entitled S^i’-lo^ Mi` Ka^n (‘Changing S^i’-lo^’s Name’), which belongeth to the funebrial caerimony of a dead to^-mba`

Mila invited To^-mba` S^i’-lo^ "to a competition : the one who would be the first to reach the top of the high mountain" S^i’-lo^ Nyu’-gu:^ (Nyu`-n’-s^i’-lo^ Nyu`) "in the far western lands, the place where the sky and the earth meet, would get all the books that were hidden there ...

Mila started out in the middle of the night, riding on his drum called nda^w-k’o`, while" To^-mba` S^i’-lo^ "waited until the early hours of the morning, taking the first ray of the sun as his vehicle to ride up to the mountain top. Although the method he used was very efficient, he had to concede that Mila ... arrived on the mountain [summit] just before him ..."

p. 336b legendary origin of Na-xi pictographic writing

To^-mba` S^i’-lo^ "sketched things ...

And the first book that he filled with his sketches was called

Ss^ dgyu’ lv^ dgyu’ (Marking Wood, Marking Stones).

This was the origin of the pictographs."

p. 338 Taman rendition of the contest in flying to the mountain-summit :-

p.

exploit

338a

"Naro Bonchung (Nar Bon, Naru Bon, Nharu Bon or Nara Bon Chen in the different renderings) {cf. NARBONNe, Langue d’ Oc} is ... replaced ... by Dunsur Bon (Tu~sur Bon, Dungsur Bon or Dhungsro Bon), whom the Tamang venerate as the mythical founder of their own bombo tradition."

338a-b

In one variant of this legend,

"Playing his drum Nara is propelled up the mountain, while Guru Rin-poche (Padmasambhava), changing himself into a vulture, catches up with his opponent right below the peak,

338b

tripping him and causing him to fall into a bed of nettles. {Howbeit, it was not Padma-sambhava, but Mila-raspa, who throve by eating nettles!}

 

Enraged, Nara inflicts upon Guru Rinpoche a swarm of bees which sting his face ..."

 

"In all other Tamang versions,

the drum of the bombo is heard to resound ... overturned, right over the head ... {cf. Norse myth of kettle worn over head as helmet}

 

In one case ... the drumming brings a fatal result.

While Dunsur is fighting with a sea-monster at the bottom of the lake, his ... consort, the "witch of the four primordial bombo", follows his drumming instructions in the wrong way. Instead of hitting the drum from the violent side ([from] inside - out), she beats it in the peaceful and mild direction (from outside – in), thus causing him to lose his battle and die."

pp. 340-341 legend of sheep-skin from the Qian on the river Min in northwestern Si-c^uan

p.

legend

340b

"one of their legendary shamans or tuan kung after having obtained sacred books, took a rest on his way back home fell asleep. When he woke up, he realized that the books were already in the sheep’s stomach. ...

341a

A golden haired monkey ... advised the desolate shaman to purchase the sheep, eat up the sheep all by himself and make a drum its its skin".

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Michael Oppitz & Elizabeth Hsu : Naxi and Moso Ethnography. Vo:lkerkundemuseum, Zu:rich, 1998. pp. 235-342