Orders of the Dreamed, IIB



Dramatis Personae


IIB.1 p. 107 Kis^e-manitow

"Literally 'great spirit,' Kis^emanitow ... . ... Vecsey (1983) discusses the concept among Ojibwa groups."

Vecsey 1983 = Christopher Vecsey : Traditional Ojibwa Religion ... . Philadelphia : Amer Philosophical Soc.

IIB.4 p. 109 Cree Misi-pisiw = Ojibway Mis^s^i-pis^i ('Great Lynx')

"Seventeenth-century sources on Ojibwa and Ottawa religion mentioned cognate words referring to a spirit associated with lakes and rivers who was offered prayers and sacrifices for good fishing and safe water travel ... . The most detailed account was provided by Pachot in the early 1700s ... . He described ... the ... master of spirits of lakes as possessing the form of a

sea tiger with fins."

{perhaps the tigershark (seatiger) Galeocerdo cuvier}

IIB.5 p. 110 Cree Misi-kinipik = Ojibway Mis^s^i-kinepik ('Great Snake)

"spiritually powerful serpents, often possessing one or more horns and viewed as enemies of thunder, ... widespread in American Indian religions in the eastern United States (Gatschet 1899; Beauchamp 1888)."

Gatschet 1899 = Albert S. Gatschet : "Water Monsters of American Aborigines". J OF AMER FOLKLORE 12:255-60.

Beauchamp 1888 = W. M. Beauchamp : "Onondaga Tales". J OF AMER FOLKLORE 1.1:44-8.

IIB.6 p. 110 Omemihdetehesiwak ('Hairy-Heart beings')

"the Hairy-Heart beings were the enemies of the transformer Wisahkecahk in a Plains Cree myth which resembles the story told by Nelson ... (Ahenakew 1929, 339-42)."

Ahenakew 1929 = Edward Ahenakew : "Cree Trickster Tales". J OF AMER FOLKLORE 42:309-53.

IIB.7 p. 110 mermaids & mermen

"the underwater spirits known to the Attawapiskat Swamp Cree (Honigmann 1956, 67-68) and the Montagnais-Naskapi (Speck 1935, 68-69)."

IIB.8 p. 111 Cree Miskinahk = OjibwayMikkinakk ('Turtle')

"Nelson's description of Mikkinakk agreed with others attesting his amiablity, humor, veracity, and popularity with audiences".

IIB.9 p. 111 Cree Mostos = Ojibway Mas^kotepis^ikki ('Buffalo')

"Among Cree and Ojibwa groups who took up residence on the plains in the eighteenth century, the Buffalo emerged as a spirit strongly associated with shamanism (cf. Howard [1965], 118)."

Howard 1965 = James H. Howard : The Plains-Ojibwa or Bungi. Vermillion : SD Mus, U of SD, 1965.

IIB.10 p. 111 Pakahk ('Skeleton')

"common to both Cree and Ojibwa, ... Shared attributes are their ability to fly, ... and the signalling of their presence by weird laughter, moans, or rattling bones. ...

Some Plains Cree conceptualized them as small creatures (Dion 1979, 56)".

{"the sorcerer had sat down with a tiny man who danced in the palm of his hand. "I'm Master Log," he said, "and this is Huitzilopochtli"" (ThTGOH, p. 80).

Among Plains Cree and Plains Ojibwa, pakahk is identified as the originator and patron of the Give Away Dance ... (Cree mahtahitowin) sponsored in its honor".

Dion 1979 = Joseph F. Dion : My Tribe the Crees. Calgary : Glenbow Mus.

ThTGOH = Ptolemy Tompkins : This Tree Grows Out of Hell : Mesoamerica and the Search for the Magical Body. HarperSanFrancisco, 1990. http://books.google.com/books?id=i9ih8TPZpE8C&pg=PA80&lpg=PA80&dq=

IIB.11 p. 112 Kiwetin ('North')

"North Wind appears in the Wisahkecahk myth as the transformer's benevolent grandfather ... . ... .

... the four wind spirits as brothers with distinct behavioral attributes is widely distributed in the Algonquian ... northeast (e.g., Tanner 1979, 95; Schoolcraft 1860, 337-38; Brown 1977)."

Tanner 1979 = John Tanner : A Narrative of the Captivity and Adventures of John Tanner ... . (1st edn 1830).

Brown 1977 = Jennifer S. H. Brown : "James Settee and His Cree Tradition". ACTES DU HUITIE`ME CONGRE`S DES ALGONQUINISTES. Ottawa : Carleton U.

IIB.12 p. 112 Cree Pidesiw = Ojibway Pinessi ('Thundre-er')

"The majesty and power ascribed to thunderbirds are hinted at by the conjurer's stipulation that they remain outside the lodge to avoid breaking it apart. ... Some groups, for example the Lake Nipigon Ojibway (Morriseau 1965, 4-14), recognized different classes of thunder beings."

Morriseau 1965 = Norval Morriseau : Legends of My People the Great Ojibway. Toronto : McGraw-Hill Ryerson.

IIB.13 p. 112 "Crazy Woman"

"The "Foolish Woman" described by Landes (1968, 22) among the southwestern Ojibway may be a related character".

Landes 1968 = Ruth Landes : Ojibwa Religion. Madison : U of WI Pr.

IIB.14 p. 113 Nehanimis

"Curtis (1928, 18:129-31) collected a Plains Cree myth in which the hero "Neyanimis" wins a magical contest with a giant and then creates from his body the four wind spirits."

Curtis 1928 = The North American Indian.

IIB.15 p. 113 Cree Mis^apos^ = Ojibway Mis^s^apos^

"Mis^apos^ is Wisahkecahk's younger brother who meets his death at the hands of the Great Lynxes {Lynges} and thereby precipitates the events leading to the deluge."

IIB.16 p. 113 Cree Pisim = Ojibway Kisiss ('Sun')

"In some verions of the Ojibway transformer cycle, the Sun appears as the father of Nenapos^ (Speck 1915, 28)".

Speck 1915 = Frank G. Speck : Myths and Folklore of the Timiskaming Algonquian and Timagami Ojibwa. CANADA DEPT OF MINES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, MEMOIR 71. ANTHROPOLOGICAL SER 9.

IIB.17 p. 113 Cree Tipiskawi-Pisim = Ojibway Tipikk-Kisiss ('Moon')

"Moon appeared as the originator {originatrix} of the first female in the post-deluge creation {the 2nd creation} of human beings. ... A myth representing the sun and moon as brother and sister exists among the Swamp Cree (Clay 1938, 24)."

Clay 1938 = Charles Clay : Swampy Cree Legends. Toronto : Macmillan.

IIB.18 p. 113 "the spirit owner or controller of medicinal plants"

For the Ojibway, "see also Morriseau 1965, 112".

IIB.19 pp. 113-4 "Sickness" / "Plague"

p. 113

"Nelson ... encountered one of the four spirits associated with epidemic diseases in a visionary dream ... . One of his Lac la Ronge Cree acquaintances, who had one of them as a spirit guardian, was warned by it".

p. 114

"cf. Thompson 1962, pp. 92-93".

Thompson 1962 = David Thompson's Narrative, 1784-1812, ed. by R. Glover. Toronto : Champlain Soc.

IIB.20 p. 114 "Strong Neck"

"In conjuring performances, he was ... the one spirit who could not become invisible : consequently those present were required to cover their heads when he approached."

IIB.21 p. 114 Nacwapew ('Pikefish')

"In the shaking lodge of the Berens River Saulteaux, the "Little Jack Fish" provoked amusement by its imperfect recitation {enunciation} of ... words called out to it from the audience (Hallowell 1942, 845)."

IIB.22 p. 114 Cree Mwakwa = Ojibway Mank ('Loon')

""Loon would call out ... a cry ... though to resemble Cree and Ojibwa verbs meaning, "I want to marry!""

{[Wabanaki -- NM, p. 196] "A brother and a sister who were in love with each other decided to run away together. ... The culprits were about to be caught on a frozen lake they were crossing, when ... they were seen to emerge in the form of a loon uttering its weird cry. In this form the lovers rose up into the sky, where they became the Orion constellation (Speck 5, p. 352).

The Penobscot variant (... Speck 3, p. 20; 10, p. 52) is thought ... to ... be a reference to Orion ... . The origin of this is given in a myth relating how a man fell in love with his cousin and married her against tribal custom."} {"The story of the Loon-woman ... is ... that of

love between a brother and sister" (IMSCC, p. 173). "The Loon Woman ... is also a story of incest between siblings." (Modoc, Shasta, Wintu -- HNAM, p. 125)}

NM = Claude Le'vi-Strauss (transl. by John & Doreen Weightman) : The Naked Man. NY : Harper & Row, 1981. http://books.google.com/books?id=vJ4hy6tf-ikC&pg=PA196&lpg=PA196&dq=

IMSCC = A. L. Kroeber : Indian Myths Of South Central California. UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PUBLICATIONS AMERICAN ARCHAEOLOGY AND ETHNOLOGY, Vol. 4, No. 4. 1907. http://www.3rocks.org/publications/Indian_Myths_South_Central_California.pdf

HNAM = Dawn E. Bastian & Judy K. Mitchell : Handbook of Native American Mythology. ABC-CLIO, 2004. http://www.eso-garden.com/specials/handbook_of_native_american_mythology.pdf

IIB.23 p. 114 Cree Omidahcis = Ojibway Kwikwa>ake ('Wolverine')

"the spirit Wolverine of the shaking lodge was ... distinguished by its offenseive smell."

IIB.24 p. 114 Cree Caswekanikwacas = Ojibway S^akas^kantawe ('Flying Squirrel')

"The Flying-Squirrel apears as another animal visitor in the shaking lodge, distinguished, however, by the fact that its utterances must be construed in reverse to be properly interpreted. This speaking style provides an interesting parallel to the discourse of the Oglala Sioux Heyoka or "Contrary" Society".

{One of the deities of the Heyoka is the "whirlwind" ("SSC", p. 469, art. 219). "Flying Squirrel ... was in the center of the whirlwind." (Seneca -- "F-S&S")}

"Rock Cree today associate the flying squirrel with bad hunting and trapping prospects".

{"Flying-Squirrel ... could kill no game and he didn't know how to get food for his wife and children." (Seneca -- "F-S&S")}

"SSC" = J. Owen Dorsey : "A Study of Siouan Cults". 11th ANNUAL REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1889-90. Washington (DC), 1894. pp. 361-544.

"F-S&S" = Flying-Squirrel and the Seasons". http://www.firstpeople.us/FP-Html-Legends/Flying-Squirrel-And-The-Seasons-Seneca.html

IIB.25 p. 114 Cree Maskwa = Ojibway Makkwa ('Bear')

"The Algonquian evaluation of the bear as the most ... spiritually-110powerful of terrestrial animals ... has been discussed comparatively by Hallowell (1926; cf. Speck 1935, 92-110; Skinner 1911, 68-76).

Rock Crees sometimes refer to bears as apihtawidiniw or 'half-human' and regard them as sources of power for ... curing."

Hallowell 1926 = A. Irving Hallowell : "Bear Ceremonialism in the Northern Hemisphere". AMER ANTHROPOLOGIST 28:1-175.

IIB.26 p. 115 Cree Atim = Ojibway Animos^s^ ('Hound')

There is an "antogonism between dogs and game animals exemplified by such rules as disposing of animal bones so that dogs cannot gnaw them".

IIB.27 p. 115 Cree Kona = Ojibway Kon ('Snow')

"In contrast to ... other beings linked with winter and cold (North Wind, Ice), Rock Crees do not associate the Snow being with danger or wihtikow."

IIB.28 p. 115 Cree Okis^kimanisiw = Ojibway Okis^kimanissi ('Kingfisher')

"Often the transformer rewards the Kingfisher with attractive plumage (e.g., Stevens 1985, 20); in other versions the bird is punished for its predatory intentions toward the brother's remains."

Stevens 1985 = James R. Stevens : Legends from the Forest Told by Chief Thomas Fiddler. Moonbeam (ON) : Penumbra Pr.

IIB.30 p. 115 Cree Maskwamiy = Ojibway Mikkwam ('Ice')

"among present-day Rock Crees of the Churchill River, Ice is a malignant being linked with the wihtikow disorder. ... Some Rock Crees localize Ice in Granville Lake".

IIB.31 p. 115 Cree Asiniy = Ojibway Assin ('Stone')

"individual stones might ... turn out to be animate and responsive (Hallowell 1976:362-64). Rock Crees recognize particular ... rocky sites as possessing a spiritual component; one rocky ledge on the Laurie River, for example, was the pawakan or dream guardian of a woman and aided her in an encounter with a wihtikow monster".

Hallowell 1976 = Selected Writings of A. I. Hallowell, ed. by Raymond Fogelson. U of Chicago Pr.


MANITOBA STUDIES IN NATIVE HISTORY, III = Jennifer S. H. Brown & Robert Brightman (edd.) : "The Orders of the Dreamed" : George Nelson on Cree and Northern Ojibway Religion and Myth, 1823. Minnesota Historical Society Pr, St. Paul, 1988.