Palo Mayombe, II.2.2-II.2.7

II.2.2 Lucero

p. 81

"sparks of light in the night represent, ... truly are, spirits crossing the earth and air. The phenomenon of lights sparking around the treetops and descending on the crown of the tree is especially connected to pine trees and bamboo. ... Nkuyu is an errant spirit who resides in the forest; it is the wilderness and the treetops that are his domain. This is the principle behind Nkuyu Nfinda, denoting the sparkling arrival of spirit upon earth, {leaping} the breach between the invisible and visible world. ... The proper Kongo name for Lucero would then be Mpungo Luufu Nkuyu meaning the power of the errant spirit or Nkuyu Nfinda, the ghost /ancestors that live in the wild forest. ... Nkuyu is said to live in the woods, preferably in the treetops and of them, bamboo is his favorite dwelling place. ... Being of this errant

p. 82

nature he traverses every path and any road."

"Cuye Lumbembe is considered to be the spirit who discovered Nkuyu Nfinda in the form of the dead of the four winds, but ... he is the light within the lightning".

"For Lucero, the sparks from the blacksmith's forge are sacred, as are

the dragonflies and

{because dragonflies are attracted to the glitter of sunlight on water's surface, and to any other glittering surface?}

the fireflies. Everything phosphorus that ignites ... is his,

and sulphur is his. ...

{because it is a dry combustible mineral?}

Lucero is the sulphur that opens the mouth and releases oracles. It is the sulphurous fumes in the mountains of Delphi ... . ...

p. 83

In order to effectuate his mumia {mummy}, or corpse, you will need ntoto from the four corners of

a hill which possesses the presence of death.

{mound of interrment/sepulchre/burial}

You will need sticks and mpolos that carry the power of wind ..., you will need sulphur and mercury and the tongue of a rooster. He needs feathers of ... vulture, raven and owl. ... His firma or signature is often recognized as three arrows descending in flight, signifying his power of bringing things from above to below. ... He can be made from ... a bamboo stick ... .

A Lucero Malongo is usually given as a talisman and serves as a guide for the person. ...

There is also the Lucero Kini Kini made in wooden statutes. They are considered ndoki ... .

There is also Lucero Guardeiros which ... is used to protect home and hearth.

Lucero takes its power from ...

three different palm trees (Benkosi, Membra and Butansake).

Ntoto Chola, Kalunga, ...

Main Road, Market, ... Highway,

Rabbit, Rat, ... .

Lucero is also known as :

Tata Nkuyu, Tata Nfinda, Quicio Puerta, Maruga, ...

Orumbo, Numbe Nganga El Igualito, Man~unga, Lubaniba.

There is also an nkisi called Mayunga ... that takes its bilongo from Lucero and Mayimbe."

p. 81 "Anima Sola del Purgatorio, ... or Anima[s] Solas, the lonely souls in purgatory ... correspond to ... more correctly, Kikuyu {this being also the name of a tribe in Kenya} by being a legion of errant souls which are in-between."

II.2.3 Zara-banda

p. 87

"His name is most likely from the kikongo sa`la, to work, and ba`nda which refers to something sacred ..., a taboo or a consecration. ... Yet another suggestion is that the name of this mpungo veils the secrets of mumbanda {a word cognate with /Umbanda/}, which is a direct reference to the murmurs of the sorcerer, ... and sala ... can also mean whispering. Banda ... can also signfy to forge, by the use of the hammer. The word {phrase} banda ntoto, to forge the earth, is also a reference to initiation ... . ... The metal worked is iron, traditionally assigned to the spine ... . ... The ability to forge hard substances ... is found in the ritual of 'binding the four corners' which is basically a ... binding of errant spirits made in order to pefect them. Zarabanda is the power of iron ... . ... It is

p. 88

Zarabanda who forges the errant spirits into nkisi. ... He is the tronco mayor in Palo Brillumba and as the owner of the mbele, machete, he is also seen as the blade ... .

To build his mumia, you will need iron, 21 palos, horseshoes, machete, hair, ... a snake and preferably its egg. ...

Zarabanda is also known as Salabanda, Brillumba Musi, Cuyere Ngando, Monte Oscuro and Yumyumbila."

II.2.4 Vence Bataya

p. 90

"Vence Bataya is also known as Watariamba, from the kikongo Wa ta'ri a mba' meaning a stone of fire. ... For the kimbisa this is St. Norbert. The association with St. Norbert is interesting as he was struck by lightning ... . While {undergoing a near-death experience caused} by the lightning went through an inner visionary revelry {sic : read "revery"} ... . ... To be struck by the lightning and survive would be like an instant deification. ...

p. 92

Watariamba is also named after his primary stick, Palo Fuerte, and is the tronco mayor of the rama Vence Batalla. ... Vence Bataya ... is the mpungo that gives the gift of astral travel ... . ... The tari` or stone ... with ... Vence Bataya ... is the meteorite".

"Given the complexity of his nature the construction of his mumia is also one of the more complex to bring to life. You will need ... 21 sticks, feet and/or antlers of a deer, arrows, and an iron bow. Matari stone, river stone, the burning stone and laterite. You will also need a rich amount of bilongos, Nsasi and a vast arsenal of mpolos ['powders']".

p. 93

"He is also known as Nkuyu Buenco, Saca Empen~o, Lupokuyo, Santisi and Cabo Ronda."

II.2.5 Nsasi/Siete Rayos

p. 95

"Nsasi or Nza`zi means lightning and thunder and he is frequently known as Siete Rayos, seven bolts of lightning. He is the fundamento or tonco mayor in pure Palo Mayombe ... . ... One of the first steps toward receiving the nganga is the presentation to the Ceiba. It is absolutely crucial that one is marked in front of the Ceiba".

p. 96

"In the kingdom of Kongo he was seen as having an affinity with Mukiamamuilo ... . ... Mukiamamuilo in Kikongo means the grandeur of the head of the nobles and refers to the crown earned by nobles and aristocrats".

"His mumia ... represents ... the sap of the pine. He is born by the powers of ... thunder birds ... (and of those especially the eagle). He does need something of the cat or lion and the Ceiba. These are the powers that animate the nfumbe. He will need ... mpolo from a tree struck by lightning.

Other names given to Siete Rayos are : Ngundo Liri, ... Insasi, Nkita, Nkita`n Kita`n, Kanbaranguanje and Insancio."

II.2.6 Tiembla Tierra

p. 97

"The Bantu name for Tiembla Tierra is Ma`ama Kengue, Ma`ma being a title of veneration, while Kengue {/kenge/}, from

the Kikongo kanga, means to bind ... . ...

{The asura Varun.a is stated, in the Veda, to unbind prisoners.}

This mpungo is said to dwell on the mountain top and is also known as the earth shaker. ...

There is a relationship here with the Simbi class of spirits in Vodou ... .

{Simbi is actually no part of Vodou (which is the religion of Dahomey), but instead is, like unto Mayombe itself, from Gabon.}

This spirit is essentially female, but often manifests in male forms. ... Ma`ma Kengue can therefore signify to be bound by the mothers ... .

p. 98

His palos are any thorn-free palm tree, cotton, oils and milk. ... As such the nsusu nfinda (pigeon) is his animal ... . ...

He walks with the cotton drape serpent

{Varun.a wieldeth (in the Haya-astra Pan~ca-ratra -- "V&D6") "a noose made of a snake." (Likewise in, e.g., Bhagavata Upa-puran.a 8 -- "VP").}

and worships ... crystals.

{Varun.a worshippeth (according to the Puran.a -- "IL") the linga consisting of sphat.ika (quartz).}

Other names given to Tiembla Tierra are : Vioco Zambi, Moco Zambi ..., Yola`, In~a Naa`ba".

"V&D6" = "Varuna and His Decline – Part Six"

"VP" =

"IL" = "Istha Lingam"

II.2.7 Mama Chola

p. 101

"The name Mama Chola Wengue is from the kikongo ki yo`la vwe'nge`, ki being a prefix signifying plurality, yo`la meaning falsity and vwe'nge` being the power that provokes confusion and dislike. ... She is the dominatrix and

the leather-clad love that is concealed in sadism".

{The Hellenic goddess who is leather-clad is Athene, weareress of goat-skin aigis.}

"Some see Mariquilla as a separate nkisi ... . Mariquilla is

the bitter star of the river."

{The bitter herb Apsinthe (Absinthe) is described (in the Apokalupsis of Ioannes) as a falling star (meteor).}

p. 103

"To effectuate her mumia you need mayimbe (vulture) and

susundamba (owl)

{The owl is the bird of goddess Athene.}

and her most prized nfumbe is the skull of a prostitute ... .

She is honey

{Dlilah had S^ims^o^n captured because he had discovered honey.} {Raccoon discovered honey (eastern South Dakota -- WE).}

and ice,

{Raccoon praedicted freezing of water (Potawatomi myth -- "AR").}

the sting of bees and wasps.

She is amber and

{This would imply aequivalence to Hsi Wan Mu ('West Queen Mother') "with the ferocious features of a tigress" (CM&R, p. 249) : for, "When a tiger dies, its soul (spirit) ... is ... amber" (according to the Pen Ts>ao Kan Mu -- "HJAA", p. 217).}

she walks with crocodiles and alligators.

{Shilluk part-crocodile goddess Nyakaya (or Nikaiya) by her "temporary incarnation" is the cause of "unusual behaviour on the part of a water animal" ("ShUN", p. 146).}

{Whirlpool-producing Malayan crocodile-goddess "Toh Sri Lam went to war" ("R&MMPS", p. 77) : much as war-goddess Athene's birth "was by the advices of Gaia" (HTh 886 sq -- "TM"); while a "daughter of Gaia" (ACM, p. 493b) is Kharubdis the whirlpool-goddess.}

The cobra coral is her friend.

She needs copper, cinnamon and

takes datura and belladonna as her plant allies.

She is also known as Chola Nguengue {Ngenge} ... Chola Angueng[u]e {A-ngenge}."

her mambo (recitation) :

"Zunzu`n sin un~as" ('without fingernails')

{"Tawhaki was told to capture his wife while her fingers, or rather finger-nails, were soft after her bathing; presumably she would not be able to scratch hard at such a time." ("ST", p. 359)}

WE = Charles Eastman & Elaine Goodale Eastman : Wigwam Evenings. 1909.

"AR" = "Adventures of Raccoon".

"ShUN" = Godfrey Lienhardt : "The Shilluk of the Upper Nile". In :- Cyril Daryll Forde (ed.) : African Worlds. 1954. pp. 138-63.

CM&R = Anne Birrell : The Classic of Mountains and Seas. Penguin Bks, 1999.

"HJAA" = Berthold Laufer : "Historical Jottings on Amber in Asia". MEMOIRS OF THE AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGICAL ASSN, I. pp. 222-40.

"R&MMPS" = Nelson Annandale : "Religion and Magic among the Malays of the Patani States". In :- Nelson Annandale & Herbert C. Robinson : Fasciculi Malayenses. Voll. 1-2. Longmans, Green & Co, 1903. pp. 89-149.

HTh = Hesiodos : Theogony.

"TM" = "titanis Metis"

ACM = Stephen M. Trzaskoma, R. Scott Smith, Stephen Brunet, Thomas G. Palaima : Anthology of Classical Myth: Primary Sources in Translation. Hackett Publ, 2004.

"ST" = "The Story of Tawhaki as Written by Henare Potae Of Uawa". J OF THE POLYNESIAN SOC 37 (1928):359-66.,_No._148/The_story_of_Tawhaki,_by_Henare_Potae,_p_359-366/p1


Nicholaj de Mattos Frisvold : Palo Mayombe : the garden of blood and bones. Bibliothe`que Rouge (Scarlet Imprint), 2011.