Purposes, Means, and Convictions in Daoism [Part II]


pp. 113-130 Timothy Barrett : "The Princess-Nuns of the High Tang Period".


p. 118

"The Taiping Princess, or Princess of Great Peace ..., bore the name of a famous and ancient text, the Scripture of Great Peace". {Since the Tai-pin Jin is an idealized description of the administration of the Roman Empire, therefore the Tai-pin Princess may have been an imitation of a Roman vestal virgin. "Great Peace (Taiping ...) ... is characterized by the descriptions of an ideal state located in the west, the Da Qin (which has, incidentally been identified with the Roman empire)." (TGR, p. 54)}

p. 120

"the Golden Transcendent Princess"

p. 121

"the Jade Realized Princess"

TGR = Isabelle Robinet (transl. by Phyllis books) : Taoism : Growth of a Religion. Stanford U Pr, 1997. http://books.google.com/books?id=rigYHnGDsewC&pg=PA54&lpg=PA54&dq="Da+Qin"+Taiping&source=bl&ots=G6auKAMFkZ&sig=ASjhp3NloDpsnUXooEpktsCIIW8&hl=en&ei=qK5GSr_XOY2etwesm8zYBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1


pp. 131-150 Stephen R. Bokenkamp : "What Daoist Body?".

p. 134 souls within the body according to the S^an-qin scriptures by Yan Xi (330-386? Chr.E.) – quoted from EDS, pp. 326-7

"The body of a person contains the spirits of the Palaces of the Three Primes. Within the Gate of Destiny are the Grand Sovereign of the mystic Pass and the spirits of the three cloudsouls. Altogether, then, there are seven spirits within the body who desire that the person live a long life. ...

The seven whitesouls are also born within the same body, but they are thieves who attack the body.

As for the placement of the Palaces of the Three Primes :

The Palace of the __ Prime

is in the __.

Its spirit is the __

with the byename and

the altername name __.



"Ruddy Infant"

"Primal Priority"

"Thearch’s Chamberlain"


Scarlet Chamber (heart)

"Perfected One"

"Thane Cinnabar"

"Shining Durability"


Cinnabar Field (below navel)


"Primal Yang"

"Valley Mystery"

These are the spirits of the triple unity. Whenever you wish to secure your cloudsouls and control your whitesouls, you should always first secretly call out the names of these spirits."

EDS = Stephen R. Bokenkamp : Early Daoist Scriptures. Berkeley : U of CA Pr, 1997.

p. 142 meditation-practice advocated in Scripture of Salvation -- quoted from EDS, pp. 413-4

"On days on which you practice this Dao, you should bathe in perfumed water. ...

Then mentally bow thirty-two times.

(fn. 33) "these prostrations should be ... accompanied by visualizations of the thirty-two thearchs. (See HY 87, 1.30b-31a)"

Shutting your eyes, ... imagine your body seated in the midst of tri-colored clouds of green, yellow, and white.

(fn. 34) the 3 original pneumata :-

the __ pneuma

is __







... arrayed closely beside you, are ... the lion, and the white crane.

(fn. 35) "The lion and the white crane seem here to be symbols of the ... below and above."

The sun and moon, in full luminescence, shine penetratingly into the chamber.

From the back of your neck emerges a round image which, with its beams, shines into the ten directions."

p. 147 the nature of the mind, according to Xun-zi

"The mind is lord of the body and master of the spiritual intelligence [shenming]."

quoted from X, Vol. III, p. 105

"The mind/heart that dwells within the central cavity is used to control the five faculties [5 senses] – it is called "the lord provided by nature.""

quoted from X, Vol. III, p. 16

X = John Knoblock (transl.) : Xunzi : a translation. Stanford U Pr, 1988.


pp. 151-182 Li Gang : "The Subtlety of Body Divinities and Their Fortification".

p. 151 terminology

"the body with its outer appearance (xing ...),

the spiritual forces (shen ...) that inhabit the body,

the essences or subtle substances (jing ...) and

the vital energies or the breath of life (qi ...)."

p. 151 non-being

"The __

do not have any __

heavenly perfected (tianzhen ...)

outer form

demoniac creatures (guiwu ...)


and this is so because their bodies are made up by the breaths of pure yang and pure yin (chungyang chungyin ...).

They are all the shape of the shapeless."

pp. 151-152 form (body) & breath (energy)

p. 151

"the outer form is the lodge of the breath;

the breath is the master of the outer form".

p. 152

"the spiritual force is the being (xing ...), and

the breath is the life endowment (ming ...)".

p. 152 forces, essences, & breaths, according to the Tai-pin Jin (‘Great-Peace Scripture’)

"speaks about the three constituents of human life, namely

the spiritual forces,

the essences and

the breaths

(shen, jing, qi ...)."

"features them in the sense of the structure


minister, and

the people"

(jun, chen, min ...)."


pp. 183-200 Florian C. Reiter : "Convictions and Means in Daoist Thunder Magic (Daojiao leifa)".

pp. 184-189 thunder-deities

p. 184

Wan Wen-qin (1093-1153 Chr.E.) wrote the "short tract "Assembling the Divine Force" (Lianshen ...)" describing how to use "internal spiritual potential in order evoke the presence of the martial Thunder divinity "Great Divinity of Blazing Fire"."

p. 185

Wan Wen-qin "claimed the "Great Divinity of Blazing Fire" to be the apotheosis of Deng Bowen ..., who ... supported Huangdi ... in his military efforts against Chi You ..., who was the first rebel according to" S^i-ji 1.1b.

p. 186

When Wan Wen-qin "had a mysterious encounter with the lady divinity "Mother of Lightning" (Dianmu ...) he seems to have received a small text concerning the inhaling and exhaling of thunder energies." (TT 1250 = C^on-xu Ton-miao S^i-c^en Wan Xian-s^en Jia-hua 1a-2a)

p. 189

"The Northern Dipper (beidou ...) and the Southern Dipper (nandou ...) are the foremost stations, where divine Thunder generals and messengers await the orders of the god-emperors, who in turn respond to the memorials and requests that Daoist thunder specialists ritually offer."

p. 197 savage thunder-messengers of the cardinal directions




Ma Ri-xiu


Guo Yuan-jin


Fan Z^on-gao


Den Gon-c^en


Tian Yuan-s^ou

pp. 193-194, 198-199 ritual requaests to thunder-amulet-empowering deities, in the Dao-fa Hui-yuan (‘Dao-Rituals Corpus’)





"Utmost Alert" Z^an Yuan-bo

"assemble to enter the amulet. Disperse your outer form and let your energies descend."


"Fierce Messenger" Xin Han-c^en


"Blazing-Fire" Den Bo-wen


General of the __thunder

named __

"rapidly descend into the amulet."



Liu Z^on



Li Yon-z^i



Z^ou Wen-qin



Son Yon-nin



Z^u Yongan


"God-emperors of the comets,

... chase and arrest the evil spirits (xiesui ...)"


__ Thunder

named __

do __




produce water










mount waves


Yan-divinities (Yan-s^en) "of glaring cinnabar-red,

summon the fire-crow."


"Fire Crow (huoya ...) ... having the bill of a phoenix and the scales of a dragon,

let soar the amulet onto the way ahead."

p. 193, fn. 47 "formations of spirit soldiers, each holding a cudgel with a round and spiked head of glowing iron, very much like the old weapon called "Morgenstern" ("Morning Star") in Germany. ... For the sake of convenience ... use the translation "fire chariot(s)."

p. 194 "Strong-Smelling-Smoke messengers of the fire chariots of the five thunders must burn and attack the demoniac thieves."

p. 191 effects of the 7 paces in the bu-gan ritual, according to DZ 1220:58.1b


its effect


"the heavenly stars return."


"what is demoniac and evil succumbs."


"the waters flow in the reverse direction." [" "the reverse flow of the Huanghe", reaching up to the celestial realm of Mount Jade City." (fn. 27)]


"anything cruel or weird is destroyed."


"the Thunder Lord (Leigong ...) gives notice."


"the six ding-divinities join in."


"the green dragon (qinglong ...) joins in. Taiyi ... picks and raises the thunders."

p. 197 effects of the 7 turnings of the writing-brush


its effect


"heaven and earth move."


"sun and moon shine brightly."


"the kuigang star ["the first (top) star of the Big Dipper" (p. 191, fn. 40)] ... moves."


"the Thunder Lord (Leigong ...) cries out."


"the thunderclaps issue forth."


"the mountain demons die."


"collects and beheads all the wicked demons that rush to perish under my amulet."

pp. 197-198 effects of actions by practitioner’s limbs


pract.er’s __



left eye

"morning dawn at the East at Fusang Palace"


right eye

"divine force at the West at Guanghan Palace"


left leg

"kicks the Five Holy Mountains (wuyue ...), and the stars of heaven fall down."


right leg

"shakes Mount Kunqiu ..., and the four sea stop to flow."


left hand

"shakes the fire of li, and destroys burning the wicked spirits."


right hand

"shakes the wind of the sun [-drection], to sweep clear off the evil portents (yaofen ...)."

p. 192 "the priest forms with his left hand the mudra^ "Seal of Purple Subtlety" in order to "seal his heart" (yinxin ...)."


pp. VII-X Florian C. Reiter : "Foreward".

titles of other articles by contributors

p. IX title


"Li Yuanguo ... presents : The Development of Thunder Magic and its Background in the Southern Song Period".


"Volker Olles ... describes the Chinese Literati and Daoist Sacred Space, A Nineteenth Century Inscription in Pujiang County (Sichuan Province)."


"Wang Zongyu presents ... : The Relationship between Quanzhen Daoism and Local Cults".



ASIEN- UND AFRIKA-STUDIEN DER HUMBOLT-UNIVERSITA:T ZU BERLIN, Band 29 = Florian C. Reiter (ed.) : Purposes, Means and Convictions in Daoism. Harrassowitz Verlag, Wiesbaden, 2007. [Part II = pp. 111-250] [p. VII these are the transactions of the 2nd international symposium on Daoism, held in 2005; the 1st international symposium on Daoism had been held in 2001 (fn. 1 its transactions constituting Band 20, published 2005).]