North-American Amerindian shamanism in :- Rediscovery of Shamanic Heritage







Barbara Tedlock

"The Feminine in Shamanic Heritage"



Joan B. Townsend

"Western Core Shamanism and Neo-Shamanism"



Danie`le Vazeilles

"Revival of Dakota Sioux Shamanism"



IV.3 (pp. 297-316) Barbara Tedlock : "The Feminine in Shamanic Heritage".

pp. 297-9 North American Amerindian shamanesses & their performances


source : quoted verbatim from __



McLEAN 1889:27

[Plains Cree shamaness] "As her husband beat the drum she blew over a young man who was sick. She reached into the fire and removed two pieces of metal and then stood away from the patient and sucked."


STEVENSON 1904:490-501

[Zun~i] "The female theurgists wear ... red-colored, fluffy eagle plumes attached to the forelock; their feet and legs halfway to the knee, hands and arms midway to the elbow, are painted white. ... as line of meal crossed four times extends from the altar to the ladder. The Beast Gods pass over this line to be present, for the time being, in the bodies of the theurgists. ... When a dozen or more theurgists are on the floor, their bodies thrown forward like the animals they impersonate, growling and wrangling with one another, the scene is weird and impressive."


RASMUSSEN 1929:38-9

[Iglulik Inuit] The shaman shaman’s wife (functioning as his assistant) "dashed forward ... and began talking to the spirits. She spoke in her own peculiar spirit language. The spirits spoke[,] now in deep chest notes, now in a high treble. We could hear, in between the words, sounds like those of trickling water, the rushing of wind, a stormy sea, ... .

This sitting lasted about an hour, and when all was quiet once more, [the shaman’s wife] informed us that her husband, in the shape of a fabulous bear, had been out exploring the route we were to follow on our long journey. All obstacles had been swept aside, accident, sickness, and death were rendered powerless, and we should all return in safety ... . All this had been communicated in the special language of the spirits, which she translated for us."

McLEAN 1889 = John McLean : The Indians of Canada. Toronto : William Briggs.

STEVENSON 1904 = Matilda Coxe Stevenson : The Zun~i Indians. 23RD ANNUAL REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY, for the Years 1901-1902. Washington )DC).

RASMUSSEN 1929 = Knud Rasmussen : Intellectual Culture of the Iglulik Eskimos. Copenhagen.


IV.4 (pp. 317-33) Joan B. Townsend : "Western Core Shamanism and Neo-Shamanism".

pp. 323-4 recent developments

p. 323

The Foundation for Shamanic Studies "has had a number of Native Americans from the Pacific Northwest in ... workshops. They say that Core shamanism helped them to get in touch with their heritage."

p. 324

The "Medicine Wheel ... was invented {disclosed} about the same time, in the late 1960s and early 1970s, by three people. Those people ... are :

SUN BEAR (... of Chippewa ... descent),


HYEMEYOHSTS STORM, a ... Cheyenne and Crow.

SUN BEAR (SUN BEAR and Wabun 1980; SUN BEAR et al. 1983) states that his system ... came to him in visions.

EATON (1978, 1982) said she learned the system from a Paiute "Medicine Man".

Storm’s book, Seven Arrows (1972), supposedly describes the ancient traditional system of Cheyenne, Sioux and Crow."

SUN BEAR & Wabun 1980 = The Medicine Wheel. NY : Prentice Hall Pr.

SUN BEAR et al. 1983 = The Path of Power. Spokane.

EATON 1978 = Evelyn Eaton : I Send a Voice. Wheaton (IL) : Quest Bks.

EATON 1982 = Evelyn Eaton : The Shaman and the Medicine Wheel. Wheaton (IL) : Quest Bks.


IV.5 (pp. 335-53) Danie`le Vazeilles : "Revival of Dakota Sioux Shamanism".

p. 336 sweatlodge & its sacred stones

"sixteen white willow trees ... form the skeleton of the ... sweathouses, ... sixteen for the sixteen avatars of Wakan Tanka, the Great Spirit. ... Special stones, often ones "with designs inside", are used. They are to be the messengers of the powerful spirit Grandfathers – Tunkashila."

p. 337 yuwipi & sacred stones

"Today, most medicine men heal by means of sacred stones (yuwipi). These often transparent stones, usually found on ant hills, are used in yuwipi meetings or "Spirit meetings" during which a "yuwipi man" is tied up and then released with the help of the Spirits. The yuwipi stones are also called yuwipi wasicun ... one of the Powers – Tunkan, also called Inyan, "the Rock", one of the sixteen avatars of the Great Spirit. ...

The yuwipi man is bound fast hand and foot, and wrapped in a star quilt (wicahpi sina). ... Yuwipi songs are sung. Sparks can be seen when the Spirits are coming, strange animal sounds are heard. Gourd rattles, containing sacred stones, are used to call the Spirits".

"Several specialists (HULTKRANTZ 1980; JILEK 1982, etc.) have already noted that this kind of ritual, known elsewhere as the shaking tent, the conjuring lodge or the spirit lodge, is undergoing a remarkable revival."

HULTKRANTZ 1980 = A@ke Hultkrantz ( transl. by Monica Setterwall) : The Religions of the American Indians. U of CA Pr.

JILEK 1982 = Wolfgang Jilek : Indian Healing, Shamanic Ceremonialism in the Pacific Northwest Today. Surrey (BC) : Hancock House Publ.

pp. 338-9 Deer Woman’s dreamers

p. 338

"some Sioux still meet Deer Woman, a beautiful woman who can turn into a deer. This Spirit is no other than Anog Ite, "Double Face", ...

p. 339

said to be the wife of Tate, the Wind, and the mother of the Four Winds."

p. 340 UFO’s seers

"On the Cheyenne River and Pine Ridge Reservations, ... people during ... 1969-1971... said that they have seen U.F.O.s above the South Dakota grassland. ...

Two old men ... saw "little human-like creatures three feet tall enter into a round shining UFO which disappeared as suddenly as it had appeared"". (VAZEILLES 1977:441-2; 1996:184)

VAZEILLES 1977 = Le Cercle et le Calumet. Toulouse.

VAZEILLES 1996 = Chamanes et visionnaires sioux. Paris.

p. 342 encounters with tiny deities

An "ex-tribal Chairman of the Rosebud Reservation, wrote about ... a dream, repeated three times the same night, about a "bluish tiny man" ... In his book, The Tortured Americans (1971)."

At "yuwipi meetings ... "tiny human-like creatures are sent against" candidates who are not welcome."

T. A. 1971 = Robert Burnette & John Koster : The Tortured Americans : an Account of the American Indians’ ... Oppression. Prentice Hall.

pp. 348-9 modern authors




"Another author, ALLEN C. ROSS, ... a Dakota Sioux, ... wrote his first book ... in 1989."


"Another writer, BARBARA MEANS ADAMS, ... "a Makah Indian, one of the seven bands of the Oglala Sioux," ... practices "automatic writing" (1990:9) and she went through a "Near Death Experience" in a hospital".

349, fn. 29

"Rainbow Tribe ... Journeying on the Red Road (1992) written by ED McGAA – Eagle Man, author also of Mother Earth Spirituality (1990). ED McGAA ... "an Oglala Sioux writer ..."."

ROSS 1989 = Allen Chuck Ross : Mitakuye Oyasin.

ADAMS 1990 = Barbara Means Adams : Prayers of Smoke. Berkeley


BIBLIOTHECA SHAMANISTICA, Vol. 11 = Miha`ly Hoppa`l & Ga`bor Ko`sa (edd.) : Rediscovery of Shamanic Heritage. Akade`miai Kiado`, Budapest, 2003. Part IV.