religion of the Etrusci

Appendix A (pp. 182-190) brontoscopic kalendar (diarium tonitruale) by Tages; translated from Etruscan by Nigidius Figulus (in :- Johannes Lydus : De ostentis 27-38)

p.

De o.

mo.

day

prognostication

182B

27

Jun

1st

"barley" failure

     

2nd

"abortion of cattle, ... abundance of fish."

     

3rd

"fruits ... shrivel up."

     

4th

"fruit crops will rot."

     

7th

"fruits shall dry up.

     

8th

"ruin of grain."

     

9th

"flocks ... being overrun by wolves."

     

13th

"fall of a ruler."

     

14th

"the atmosphere shall be burning hot, ... river fish."

     

15th

"feathered creatures shall be injured"

183A

   

16th

"war"

     

17th

"mice, blind mice, and locusts."

     

21st

"dearth of wine"

     

25th

"wars"

     

27th

"danger from the army"

 

28

Jul

1st

"ruin of the flocks."

     

5th

"downfall of a virtuous ruler."

     

6th

"diseases to ... slaves."

183B

   

8th

"ruin for the cattle herds, and a dry cough"

     

9th

"a vision of the gods"

     

10th

"lifesaving river waters."

     

13th

"poisonous reptiles."

     

16th

"king of the East"

     

17th

"succession of a great ruler."

     

19th

"war"

     

22nd

"diseases around the head."

     

25th

"it will go badly for a band of youth"

184A

   

27th

"subcutaneous eruptions to [men’s] bodies."

     

28th

"poisonous reptiles."

     

30th

"treachery"

 

29

Aug

3rd

"[public] trials and debates"

     

5th

"women are the more sagacious."

     

6th

"abundance of honey"

     

7th

"harsh winds"

     

8th

"harmless disease to the four-footed."

     

11th

"downfall of reptiles"

     

12th

"abundance ... of acorns"

     

14th

"war"

     

16th

"peace."

184B

   

18th

"civil war."

     

19th

"the servile class will dare to commit murders."

     

20th

"plague on the cattle"

     

23rd

"the lightning bolt shall fall"

     

24th

"the loss of well-born youths."

     

25th

"shortage of tree fruits."

     

26th

"war."

     

27th

"wars and treachery."

     

28th

"death of cattle."

 

30

Sep

3rd

"heavy rains and war."

     

4th

"preparation for war."

     

5th

"decease in wheat."

     

6th

"power among the women"

     

7th

"disaster for the servile class."

     

8th

"crooked dealings in government"

185A

   

11th

"underlings of the well born will foment revolution."

     

16th

"good sprouting"

     

18th

"famine and wars."

     

19th

"sedition among the commons."

     

20th

"destruction of a famous man and war."

     

24th

"nut trees"

     

25th

"a tyrant shall be raised up"

     

26th

"a corrupt ruler will be felled by divine decision."

     

27th

"powerful men will work hatred toward themselves"

     

28th

"pour rain upon the fire"

 

31

Oct

1st

"a corrupt tyrant"

185B

   

2nd

"destruction of the mice"

     

3rd

"hurricanes"

     

7th

less "wine"

     

8th

"earthquake"

     

10th

"downfall of a praiseworthy man."

     

11th

"a strange sort of wind"

     

12th

"wind squalls"

     

13th

"covenants/commerce"

     

14th

"war and the loss of flocks"

     

16th

"men ... unrecognizable."

     

17th

"rich man"

     

18th

importation "from foreign lands."

     

19th

"the downfall of a ruler or the overthrow of a king."

     

20th

"festering wound"

     

21st

"oppression of the heart."

     

22nd

"spotted diseases"

186A

   

26th

"thirst."

     

27th

"heavy rains."

 

32

Nov

6th

"borers [weevils] will ruin the grain."

     

8th

"gluttony"

     

10th

"wind will wrack the trees."

     

11th

"men shall give blessings to the god"

     

12th

"insomnia"

     

13th

"bodies with internal worms."

     

14th

"poisonous snakes shall somehow gently be undone"

     

15th

"waterbound beasts"

     

16th

"locusts and field voles"

     

17th

"fodder"

186B

   

18th

"war"

     

19th

"welfare of women"

     

21st

"mice shall perish"

     

24th

"watch-post"

     

25th

"war."

     

26th

"civil war"

     

30th

"shall live ... favored by the gods."

 

33

Dec

2nd

"a plenty of fish and especially of fruits."

     

3rd

"consume their flocks because of a dearth of fish."

     

5th

"mangy"

     

6th

"visions of the faces of the gods"

     

8th

"plague on the flocks."

     

9th

"downfall of a famous man."

     

10th

"fish shall be abundant."

     

11th

"plenty imported from foreign lands."

     

12th

diarrhoea

     

14th

"civil war"

187A

   

15th

"many shall set out for war, but few shall return."

     

17th

"small locusts"

     

18th

"heavy war."

     

19th

"prolongation of war."

     

24th

"civil wars"

     

25th

"movement of troops to war"

     

26th

"diseases for the slaves."

     

28th

"locusts."

     

30th

"rebellion against the kingdom"

 

34

Jan

1st

"a fast wind will blow"

     

2nd

"unlooked-for war."

     

4th

"the common people will agree to make peace."

     

7th

"a slave revolt and recurring illness."

     

8th

"the ruler ... shall be in danger from the people."

     

9th

"the king of the East shall be in danger."

     

12th

"men shall be damaged in their faces"

187B

   

14th

"mice, and the slaughter of four-footed creatures."

     

15th

"servile revolt, and punishment for them"

     

18th

"the people rise up."

     

20th

"abundance of imported goods"

     

21st

"the king ... shall be the object of a final plot."

     

22nd

"abundance of mice and of deer."

     

25th

"unrest among the slaves."

     

28th

"the flocks will be ruined"

 

35

Feb

1st

"war and the ruin of wealthy men."

     

2nd

"an increase in livestock"

     

3rd

"civil unrest."

     

4th

"men shall be troubled ... in their very minds."

     

6th

"destruction of ... barley."

188A

   

8th

"dangerous wild beasts shall perish."

     

9th

"worse the barley."

     

10th

"the wild beasts shall undo the humans."

     

11th

"good deliveries [in childbirth] for women."

     

12th

"unseasonable winds."

     

13th

"political unrest."

     

14th

"an onslaught of poisonous reptiles."

     

15th

"mice"

     

18th

"eruption of pustules on bodies."

     

19th

"worms."

     

23rd

"deformity for men"

     

24th

"destruction for both fish and reptiles."

     

25th

"wars and a heavy storm."

     

26th

"scabs on bodies."

     

27th

"unrest among the commons."

     

29th

"war"

     

30th

"great divisions of the people."

188B

36

Mar

8th

"rains."

     

10th

"destruction to the four-footed."

     

11th

"locusts."

     

12th

"the wild beasts shall fall upon man."

     

13th

"reptiles shall trouble habitations"

     

15th

"mice and fish."

     

17th

"ruin upon ruin for men and four-footed beasts."

     

18th

"locusts"

     

22nd

"destruction of birds"

     

26th

"acquisition of imported slaves."

     

27th

"abundance imported from abraod."

     

28th

"plenty of marine fish."

189A

   

29th

"the women shall obtain the better reputation."

 

37

Apr

2nd

"prosperity to good men, and paltry things to evil men."

     

3rd

"grain supply brought from abroad."

     

6th

"civil wars will arise."

     

8th

"heavy rains"

     

12th

"ruin of fish"

     

13th

"for cattle destruction"

     

16th

"field voles."

     

20th

"divine anger."

     

21st

"war"

     

22nd

"destruction of the flies."

     

23rd

"sprouting"

     

25th

"peace"

189B

   

27th

"omens from the sky incredibly shall be revealed."

     

28th

"by shields the people shall be saved."

     

29th

"zephyrus will prevail."

     

30th

"a shower of good things."

 

38

May

1st

"flight for the common people and loss of honor."

     

3rd

"abundance imported from abroad."

     

5th

"The pulses [legumes] ... shall be ruined."

     

7th

"abundance of birds and fish."

     

10th

"lizards"

     

12th

"destruction of fish"

     

13th

"increase in river waters"

     

14th

"eastern war"

     

16th

"atonement must be made ... terrible news."

     

17th

"rainy weather."

     

18th

"war"

     

21st

"atonement must be made ... terrible news."

     

22nd

"destruction of marine fish."

     

23rd

"rain."

     

24th

"pass away [die] from grief."

     

25th

"a hoped-for resting-place"

     

26th

"good for those working upon the tilled land."

     

27th

"a comet shall shine forth."

     

28th

"the same" (a comet shall shine forth.)

     

29th

"northern war"

{It is easily perceived that this kalendar was based on a 22-day cycle, similar to the 20-day cycle in Meso-America. [But there is an irregularity allowing the days in June and October to match, indicating perhaps a longer cycle of 30-day months than 12 – could this be a reminiscence of the 5-vatsara (year) cycle in India?] Thus :-}

Jun

Jul

Oct

Nov-Dec

Jan-Feb

Feb-Mar

Aztec

9 flocks’ ruin by wolves

1 flocks’ ruin

1

15

 

22

10 hound

10

2

2 mice

16 voles

 

23 deformed men

11 monkey

11

3

3 hurricane (cf. tornado-twister)

17

 

24

12 twisted

12

4

4

18

 

25

13

13 ruler’s fall

5 ruler’s fall

5

19

 

26

14 ocelot (cf. fall of ocelot Tezcatlipoca)

14 burning hot

6

6

20

 

27

15 eagle (cf. [Norse] fire-eagle)

15 feathered

7

7

21 mice perish

 

28

16 [Pipil] tecolotl owl

16

8

8 earth-quake

22

 

29

17 earth-quake

17 blind mice (their tails were cut off with knife?)

9

9

23

 

30 divisions

18 flint knife

 

10 lifegiving waters

10

24 watch-post (cf. lightning-tower of Kronos)

   

19 rain

   

11 "strange sort of wind"

     

20 [Kic^e Hun-ahpu blow-gunner]

   

12

 

10 animals attack humans

 

1 alligator

   

13

 

11

 

2

   

14

 

12

 

3

       

13

 

4

       

14 poisonous reptiles

 

5 snake

       

15 mice

 

6 skull (cf. mice in skull)

       

16

 

7

       

17

 

8

       

18

 

9

       

19 worms (as bait for fish?)

 

water (for fishing?)

       

20

   
       

21

   

[This sequence of 22 may be aequivalent to the 22 Vetala-s.]

Appendix B – III.4 (pp. 199-200) deities in the 16 regions of the sky (in :- Martianus Capella : De nuptiis Mercurii et Philologiae 1:45-61)

p.

reg.

deities invited

deities univited

199B-200A

1st

Dii Consent-es, Penat-es, Salut-s, Lar-es, Janus, Favor-es Opertanei, Nocturnus

 

200A

2nd

Jupiter, Quirinus Mart-s, Lars Militaris, Juno, Font-s, Lymphae, Dii Novensil-es

 
 

3rd

Jupiter Secundanus, Jupiter of Opulentia, Minerva

Discordia, Seditio

 

4th

Lynsa Silvestris, Mulciber, Lars Caelestis, Lars Militaris [again!], Favor

 
 

5th

Ceres, Tellurus (the father of Terra), Vulcanus, Genius

 
 

6th

Pales, Favor [again!], Celeritat-s (daughter of Sol)

 
 

7th

Liber, Pales Secundanus, Fraud-s

 
 

8th

Veris Fructus

 
 

9th

Juno Hospita

 
 

10th

Neptunus, Lar Omnium Cunctalis, Neverita, Consus

 
 

11th

Fortuna, Valetudo, Favor Pastor

Man-es

 

12th

Sancus

 
 

13th

Fata

Dii Man-es

 

14th

Saturnus, Juno Caelestis

 
 

15th

Veiovis, Dii Publici

 
 

16th

Nocturnus [again!], Janitor-es Terrestris

 

Appendix B – III.5 (p. 200B) the 6 millennia of creation (in :- Suda : Lexikon, s.v. "Turrhenia")

millennium

entities created by the demiurge

1st

heaven & earth

2nd

firmament

3rd

sea

4th

great lights : sun , moon, stars

5th

birds & beasts

6th

humans

[This is identical with, and may be the source of, B-R>S^YT (Genesis) 1:1-27.]

Appendix B – III.6 (p. 201A) the 10 saecula (periods of history) (in :- Censorinus : De die natali 17:5-6)

saeculum

its duration (in years)

1st

100

2nd

"

3rd

"

4th

"

5th

123

6th

119

7th

"

8th

ongoing

9th

future

10th

future

Appendix B – III.8 (p. 202A) Etruscan names for the months (in :- M. Pallotinno : Testimonia Linguae Etruscae)

T.L.E.

month

its name in Etruscan

801

June

Aclus

805

May

Ampiles

818

April

Cabreas

824

September

Celius

836

August

Hermius

854

July

Traneus

856

March

Velcitanus

858

October

Xosfer

Appendix B – III.9 (p. 202A) beginning of the nychthemeron in various antient reckonings (in :- Servius : Ad Aen. 5:738)

reckoning

beginning

Aegyptian

at sunset

Persian

at sunrise

Etruscan & Athenian

at sixth hour of day

Roman

at midnight

Appendix B – V.2 (p. 206A) areas, in each city, which were dedicated to deities (in :- Vitruvius 1:7:1-2)

deities

area

Mercurius

forum

Isis & Serapis

business quarter

Apollon & Bakkhos

theatre

Heraklees

circus

Mart-s

parade-ground

Venus

harbor

Nancy Thomson de Grummond & Erika Simon : The Religion of the Etruscans. U of TX Pr, Austin, 2006.