SHAMAN, Vol. 1 (1993)





Praying in Darkness

Giovanni Stary



Mari Yosinaga & Yuji Sasaki



pp. 15-30 Giovanni Stary : "Praying in Darkness". [Manchu of Ji-lin Privince]

pp. 17-8 sequence of deities addresses

p. 17

in current usage

in Imperial Shamanic Ritual


Niyeze-i Enduri

Niyansi E.


Ecu-i Ayala

Ancun Ayara


Muliyan-i Munahu

Muri Muriha


Nadan-i Naihu

Nadan Weihuri (‘7 stars’)


Naluhu Enduri-



Katun-i Mongolo

Katun Noyan

p. 18

Baibu Janyan

Baiman Jangin

p. 27 pear-tree goddess

"the concubine fled with Nurhaci, but soon ... she ... decides to commit suicide during th flight, hanging herself from an old, bent per tree, waili in Chinese. The following day, Nurhaci ... decided he would call her "Lady of the bent pear tree" (Waili Mama), and that the Manchus should offer sacrifices to her. According to folk legends, this gave rise to the cult of Fodo Mama, ... to whom the Manchus had "to pray in the darkness" – that is tuibumbi."


pp. 31-45 Mari Yosinaga & Yuji Sasaki : "Kamidari as a Key Concept of Okinawan Shamanism".

p. 32 "shirashi (supernatural notification of the potential shaman’s destiny)"

p. 33 Case #5

"she could feel the vibrations of God in the shrine;

she could see through doors,

showed an ability to predict the future".

"At the age of 33, [she] had a dream of an old man with a long white beard standing among golden flowers; she later realized the old man was her guardian spirit. ... . ... she entered a state of trance and heartfelt devotion, and experienced the sweetness of transcendental bliss.

Her parents ... took her to a number of shamans ... . Every shaman they took her to suggested that she was born destinated to lead a spiritual life, that is to say, the life of a shaman. They claimed that her sickness would be cured after she practiced worship in the places required to find her guardian spirit, and dedicated herself to that spirit. Her brother refused to heed the oracles and took her to the psychiatric hospital. There, ... she refused the doctor’s examination."

"She now engages in regular worship ... with other apprentice shamans, and herself functions as an oracle".

p. 34 Case #9

"In her youth, she often had supernatural experiences, like

an encounter with a beautiful ship filled with the Seven Deities of Good Fortune,

or a flight to the Milky Way."

"After that, she took the office of shaman, and has been flourishing ever since."

p. 44 Case #3 -- dreams

"Scene of an ancient funeral."

"She was spirited into a hall in which the floor suddenly opened."

"A man dressed in black kimono and a suit of armor gave her a pile of bills, told her to do worship with the money".

"An old man with a white beard dressed in white clothes tweaked her ear and spoke the name of her guardian spirit."

"Someone let her ride in a black car and brought her to the sacred place for worship."

"The spirit of someone dead for a short time asked her to pray for his soul."



SHAMAN, Vol. 2 (1994)





Classification of the Sibe Shamans

Tatjana A. Pang


Creation of Man

Gregory G. Maskarinec


Shamanic Se’ance in the Historia Norvegiae

Clive Tolley



Nadezhda Bulatova



pp. 61-6 Tatjana A. Pang : "A "Classification" of the Sibe Shamans". [Ili Valley, in Qabqal County, in Xin-jiang]

pp. 62-3 the 3 types of religious specialists

p. 62

"The elcin shamans ... offer sacrifices to the Goddess of Pox (mama enduri). ... To become an elcin, one must be personally chosen by the old elcin from among those who were severely ill with the pox in their childhood".


"The offerings of a siyang tung are made to divinities named Siyang-jia (< Chinese xian-jia "ghost," "divinity") and Hu-jia (< Chinese hu-jia "fox"). ...

p. 63

A siyang tung is always a woman ... . She treats long-lasting illnesses ..., known ... as "illness brought about by the Spirit of the Fox." ... Forty-tree stones or branches are thrown onto a large table; from the pattern they fall into, the "doctor" can conclude to the nature of the malady. ... The day before the treatment, the siyang tung cuts magic paper-figures (urhu or urge) at her home, and presents them to the sick person. ... After putting the paper figures in the four corners of the room, she says a kind of "report-prayer" (jakime jarime). Then she collects them, and takes away the evil spirits in a small square-shaped box (gaise tucimbi), prepared for the occasion with a certain number of small banners placed along its four sides and wax candles placed in the middle."


pp. 109-33 Gregory G. Maskarinec : "The Creation of Man". [Jajarkot. District in Western Nepal]

p. 110 "gaud.a, star obstructions"

"identified gaud.a are :"

jaram ‘birth’,

maram ‘death’, "childhood" [‘sword’], ‘planetary threats’,

hiya ‘lost wits’,

chelya ‘hidden desires’,

s`iran kal ‘time’ "at the head",

goryan nihu ‘excuse at the feet’,

jama dut Yama the Messenger,

jama kal,

kal-cakra ‘time-wheel’,

hari ‘extreme’,

bancaro ‘axe’

p. 111 spirit-possession

"two ... forms of systematic spirit possession,

dhamis, ... asd oracles ..., and

jhagaris, who are shamans".

pp. 120-9 recital of the "Creation of Man"






"there are nine moons, there are nine suns" [fn. 4 "marshy or swampy ..., this condition precedes the arrival of the nine suns and nine moons, which then cause everything to dry up"]



" "... how can I give away the dowry of the world?" said Narayan.."



"Of the nine moons he left one moon, of the nine suns he left one sun" [fn. 5 "a wife from Indra’s heaven ... seeks a dowry of nine suns, nine moons. After ... she obtains them, ... their heat is too much : ...

The stupid race of man sat in the shade of a lentil bush." {cf. <es`aw, when (B-Re>s^it 25:29) ya<ep ‘faint, exhausted’ (overheated, with heat-exhaustion?), being fed pottage of lentils} ...

The 8 superfluous pairs of sun-and-moon were induced to depart by these actions on the part of the daughter-in-law :

"Address the elders abusively!"

"To a guest arriving at dusk, say that there’s no place to stay!"

"Hit a dog sitting in a doorway with a stick ...!"

"With uncombed hair go in and out of the house!"

"Comb your hair backwards with a wooden comb ...!"



"Beat together two pots!"

"Rub your right foot with your left foot ...!"

"Spit atop the drying shelf ...!"]



a man "of gold"



"a man of silver"



"a man of copper"



a man "of brass"



a man "of nickel"



a man "of iron"



This man of iron "chewed the tops of living trees, shattered immovable rocks" [fn. 10 was a "danava"]



"In the kingdom of Kamsa, the Kamsa queen (rani) [fn. 12 in other variants, not the queen, but Ravan.a is owner] has an old cock" [fn. 13 "Sun bhalya .. sun {suvarn.a} ordinarily means ‘golden’ ...]



"Bhabi wrote, ‘The day of birth yields karma.’ " [fn. 15 "On the sixth night after birth (the chait.h), Bhabi, Goddess of Fortune, comes to write a child’s fate on its forehead. Parents traditionally leave a light burning all night in the room with the baby so that she makes no mistakes, sometimes supplying a pen and inkpot."]



"Mother Elephant ... will carry man on his journeys."



"Mother Horse ... will be man’s slave."



"Mother Buffalo ... will go as sacrifices o the goddess."



"Mother Cow ... our milk if an offering to Barma." [fn. 40 "Barma are ... spirits of any ... suicides who at death vowed to return as avenging spirits. ... His spirit possesses many oracles (dhamis) ... and actively rights many abuses of [political] power."] {cf. West African possessing-spirits who mock European politicians}



"Mother Goat ... as sacrifices to Burma we’ll go." [fn. 41 "the Eighteen Brothers Burma are minor local spirits".]



"Mother Sheep ... as sacrifices to Barah we’ll go."



"Mother Pig ... As sacrifices to the ravine ghost we’ll go." [fn. 42 "Kholsa ghabre. A ghost who lives in a ravine".]


pp. 135-56 Clive Tolley : "The Shamanic Se’ance in the Historia Norvegiae"

pp. 139-40 shamanic se’ance (according to Ba:ckman and Hultkranz 1978:97-101)






"He undresses himself and sits naked." {If during cold weather, he may have undertaken supernatural body-warming yoga (such as is known to Taoist and to Bodish practitioners).}



"the singing (juoigos) ... included words referring to the places to be visited by the shaman in trance, or to details of the journey."



"The shaman ... holding glowing embers".



"Destinations of the shaman’s soul included :

a. The land of the dead, to retrieve the souls of the sick, or bring back a spirit to guard the reindeer herds.

b. Other supernatural places (Saiva), to gather information.

c. Distant places in this world."



"The Saiva leddie bird guided the shaman’s spirit down to the underworld, and sped him back afterwards through mountains and dales. The Saiva guelie fish appears ... . The shaman rides on its back to the underworld, and it helps the shaman fight the dead in the attempt to wrest the sick person’s soul from them; one account says that the fish was responsible for the actual stealing of the soul ... (Kildal 1807:456)."



"As the shaman returns, ... he rises, ... before recounting his journey".



"He also praises the girl who woke him and he sings to her, alluding to his genitals and her sexual qualities."

Ba:ckman & Hultkranz 1978 = Louise Ba:ckman & Aoke Hultkranz : Studies in Lapp Shamanism. STOCKHOLM STUDIES IN COMPARATIVE RELIGION, 16.

p. 141 features of shamanic performance according to the Historia Norvegiae

"The cloth under which the shaman prepared himself is not met with in later accounts of male shamans {in the Qur>an, however, Muh.ammad is wrapped in cloth in order to receive revelations from the angel}; however, Leem (1767:476) notes that the women helpers of the shaman wore a linned hue ‘linen hat’ on their head, and modern traditions of the shamaness ... mention her spreading a veil over her head while shamanising (Lundmark 1987:160). The nearest shamanic neighbours to the Lapps, the Samoyeds, used a handkerchief to cover their eyes while shamanising".

"The lifting up of the arms before going into trance is mentioned by Leem (1767:477).

The leaping about is well evidenced in later accounts (Ba:ckman and Hultkranz 1978:97)."

pp. 144-5 spirit-companions of the shaman ["noaidi gadze ‘shaman companions’ "] (the following is based on Ba:ckman and Hultkranz 1978:41-3)






"The saiva (or passevare) olmah ‘supernatural (or holy mountain) men’ lived in holy mountains and called the shaman to his office. ... The saiva nieidie ‘supernatural virgin’ strengthened the shaman with water when he suffered from the attacks of his prospective spirit helpers".



"The noides-woeigni ‘shaman’s spirits’, were animal helping spirits, who also lived in the holy mountains. ... The spirits acted as escorts during the trance journey, or as riding animals. ... The spirits were of three sorts; the shaman usually only had one of each :"



"Saiva leddie ‘supernatural bird’, apart from being sent to the saiva olmai, also showed the shaman his way during the trance journey"



"Saiva guelie ‘supernatural fish’, guided the shaman to the underworld of the dead, and watched over his soul during this journey"



"Saiva sarva ‘supernatural reindeer’, was bidden to fight against the reindeer spirit of a hostile"



"The dead, jamegeh or jabmek, lived underground in a realm ruled over by a powerful old woman Jabmieakka, ‘Old crone of the dead’. The shaman had to fetch the souls of the sick from this realm."

{Is /saiva/ < Skt. /S`aiva/; /sarva/ < Skt. /S`arva/?}

p. 145 shaman’s taking on forms of animals {cf. [Aztec] nahual}

"Olsen (1910:32) records that the noaidi gadze teach the shaman to take on the shape of wolves and bears".


pp. 167-72 Nadezhda Bulatova : "Alga, a Evenki Shamanic Rite".

p. 168 plants; stuffed animal-figure

"turu is a ritual name for a larch"

"arc^i, juniper used for fumigating"

"barkanatkan, a small stuffed animal figure, a bear."

pp. 168-9 spirit-helpers; spiritual-double

p. 168

"It started with an appeal to the spirit helpers and with a call for them to come down from the Upper World. The first [pair] of the helpers to be mentioned is the cuckoo and the hoopoe whom she summons by imitating their voices : ko-ko-ko, tut-tut. The Evenkis consider the cuckoo to be a sacred bird; according to their belief, it was a human being turned into a bird by a shaman from the Kukti: clan."

p. 169

Then she appealed to ... the Mother-Elk, which is her soul and her spiritual double : "Mother-Elk, ... Receptacle of my soul ...!""

pp. 169-70 the caerimony

p. 169

"The drum gives strength to her legs, that is why she beat herself on the joints with the drum. ... The shamanic ceremony continued with the shamaness spinning around at a great speed and the drum thundering loudly. ...

p. 170

Then she told our fortunes with a beetle (a special shaman’s club) called geXik. A geXik is made of wood hit by lightning. Its handle is narrower than the part of it with which one beats the drum. The latter has a bulge[.] which is covered with bear’s fell and also with skin from the antlers of either deer or elk. ... Then she lowered her hands into the cup of water in order to gather new strength, and began to sing again imitating the cuckoo. This was her way of speaking with her spirit helpers."