Sacred Geography


pp. 25-88 Ė II. "The Kalmyk-s"

shamanic practice in Kalmykia




The deity "White Old Man ... known as Tsagan Avga, Tsagan Ovgen, Tsagan Aav, appeared in the role of a guardian of life and longevity ... . ... this Mongolian deity, Tsagan Ubugena, was ... the Tao God of Longevity, Shoi Suno, an old man ... whose expressive {elongated} skull and laughing {Vayu is god "of laughter" (N&M)} face was well known".


"Among the Kalmyks, ... Tsagan Ovgen is considered to be the protector of the saigak (a little antelope). {Vayu is a god "in antelope form" (DAD, p. 494a)}

"The Kalmyks deified the mountain "Bogdo" which is located on the territory of the present Astrakhan oblast, in the region of Lake Bashkunchak."

"In the iconographic representations of this figure, the Tsagan Ovgen, he is shown as an old man with a dark purple {Vayu driveth "purple steeds" (DAD, p. 494a)} (blue) robe underneath, belted with a yellow sash. He has white hair and a white beard and a lotus plant is centered on his head."


"there are two revered deities in ... Shamanism : the Old White Man ... and the deity Boo who is shown usually attired in white clothes and has white hair and a white horse. In his hand he holds a rod with the head of a dragon and a snake." {Musa (Mos^eh) is noted for his "rod and snake" and his "white hand" (FEI, p. 738b)}

N&M =

DAD = Patrician Turner & Charles Russel Coulter : Dictionary of Ancient Deities. Oxford U Pr, 2001.

FEI = E. J. Brillís First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913-1936.

personal narrations & biographies




"She says she can look at a person and see clearly the spirit of the dead person as if were alive. ... she even knows how he died and what catastrophe caused his death. She sees various gods of that person Ė God of the earth, little grandfather, "domovoi" (spirits of the house), xozzyan of the house (the master or caretaker)."


"She moves her hands over the female organs and then she can describe ... what is wrong. When the patient stands up, she can see an aura, and a negative (dark) color. She sees black beads and a blue light, which is the light of the third eye. She is ... clear-sighted, which means that she can intuitively foresee the future. She receives cosmic energy throughout her whole organism. She special deity-helper ... comes to her in a zig-zag form that shoots through her whole body. She can then transfer this positive energy to her patient and can clean that personís central channel (in the head). ... You have to be able to see the aura around a person. She can see a big black snake and also ... a white kid goat."


"when her aunt was a child she went out to the steppe one day. She met a viper there with a dark brown horn on his forehead. This horn is considered to contain very strong concentrations of divine energy."


"She heals by giving positive energy into energy channels when she blows on the head, causing sickness to go away. However, she says she knows the "black language" (black magic) and the winding and cutting of black and white threads ... . ... Before her death she must tell this to someone or else it will be very bad for her after death and she might end up in the underworld (Ad). ...


If shamanic, the healer calls upon dark powers for help Ė upon the God of the Earth, and the spirits of the place where the sick person lives."


"There had been "white bone" people, ... "bo:o:" (shaman). ... He predicted that in the year 2001 ... there will be a catastrophe ... for ... the planet. ... (The validity of his prophetic powers can be noted in the 2001 attack on the World Trade Towers in New York by two ... missiles.) ... In his healing practice now he uses an iron arrow ... . This arrow goes like zig-zag lightning into the ground, bringing


the energy of the cosmos into the earth. (... in Tuva, ... the shamanís iron arrow, the sacred "spirit arrow" can be one of his most cherished attributes.) ... The scissors were used for cutting black and white threads ... . His grandmother, mother and aunt used a devilís claw for healing ... . His grandmother healed with it by laying it on her stomach and reading prayers. When a person comes to him for healing, he first sleeps 15 minutes in his chair and dreams ... and sees that personís problems.


... he connects himself as a servant (as noted in his white garb) to the Old White Man, who in turn is the Host of the Locality."


BIBLIOTHECA SHAMANISTICA , Vol. 12 = Eva Jane Neumann-Fridman : Sacred Geography : Shamanism. Akade`miai Kiado`, Budapest, 2004. [wife of Jonathan D. Fridman]