"Northern Europe"


pp. 81-96 Britt-Mari Na:sstro:m : "Freyja and Frigg".

p. 87 episode about Freyja in the Flateyjar-bo`k

the 4 men in As-gard, which is east of Vana-kvisl


1st Al-frigg {< *AL-S.riW-}

{? cf. town ALaCHUa, FL}

2nd Dvalinn

{cf. [Kemetian mythic world] DWL- (DW3-t)}

3rd Berlinger

{= city BERLIN in Brandenburg; Berlin, NH }

4th Grer

{cf. city GRaR (‘saw’ [ritual implement for initiation of women, in the Cand.a-Maha-ros.ana Tantra]) of the Pilis^ti^m; Greer, SC}


pp. 143-150 Alexander Teryukov : "Materials on Komi-Zyryan mthology".







lov ([Udmurt] lol)


lolavny ([Udmurt] lulalny) ‘breathe’


ort [only Sysola & Vycegda (p. 146)]

‘blue light’ (at night)

[‘coffin’ (p. 145)]


ure (only Izentsi)


[ort & ure are alternatives, used in different dialect-regions.]

pp. 143-144 lov (as soul)




"After death, lov dwells in the house of the dead for 40 days." {cf. Daoist & rN~in-ma belief in re-incarnation 49 days after death.}


"lov became a tree after a man’s death ... alder[-tree]" {with [Irish] NioN ‘alder’ cf. [<ibri^] NuN ‘resprout’}

pp. 144-145 ort




"Usually the ort ... becomes visible in people close to death ...

ort threw pots or other household objects off a shelf, made a noise in the peasant’s house." {poltergeist}

"the hunter would hear someone approach the house, take his skies off, and walk around. The host would then come out to greet his guest, but there was nobody there. ... this was taken as a sign of ort".


"After a man’s death, ort was thought to visit all the places where its double had been in life. {this is also Eskimo/Inuit belief.} That is why the Komi-Zyryans would, on returning from


some distant place, say ... "Such a difficult road I travelled for ort"."


"for 40 days after death, ... during these 40 days ort made the rounds of all the places visited by its living double".

{It would seem more reasonable that the re-enactment of the dead person’s life ought merely to begin after the 40 days, and then to require (as explained by Eskimo/Inuit) as long a time to re-enact as it has taken that person to live.}

p. 146 ure

"ures can appear as a bird or an animal, such as a hawk or a squirrel, whereas orts never do."


RELIGION AND SOCIETY, 36 = Juha Pentika:inen (ed.) : Shamanism and Northern Ecology. Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin, 1996. part II = pp. 79-150.