Spirit Talkers, 6



First Men on the Moon



Shamanic Flights

pp. 195-203



pp. 204-9


Things Lost

pp. 209-14


Translocation of Objects

pp. 214-16


Lost People

pp. 216-21


Quaestions Answered

pp. 221-5


Shaking Tent

pp. 225-33

6.1 (p. 196) social recognition as a professional shaman

"Powerful shamans can ... manifest exceptionally strong powers through their spirit helpers. To this end "a shaman seldom initiates anything important without praying and singing to his power and waiting for a sign or a response."

Their social recognition comes through special names given to them, such as doctor, sacred or holy person, etc. Quite often the name reflected their particular ability, such as the rattkesnake doctor, whose power was to cure snake bit[e]s."

6.1 (p. 196) postmortem retention of power by a shaman's bodily relic

"Shamans are always seen as special persons whose power may be exhibited even in death. For example, Tlingit shamans were buried above ground in small grave houses.

It is reported that their bodies never decomposed, instead they shriveled up like a mummy."

{The same is reported of the corpses of certain Roman Catholic saints who had performed miracles while living.}

6.1 (pp. 197-8) Inuit instance of flighty projection of the aitheric body/double [quoted from Rainey 1947, pp. 277-8]

p. 197

"he chose a certain evening, instructed all the people of the camp to remain indoors and

keep their dogs tied.

{an allusion to "when Indra went about in the company of the dog" (MBh, "Anus`asana Parvan" 94 -- PE, s.v. "S`unassskha")}

Then he had his host tie him up in his usual manner when flying. He always ...

p. 198

had his hands tied behind him, with one end of the binding thongs attatched to some heavy object like an adze head. The lights were dimmed and he "got his power" by walking around his drum. ... When one of the supposedly extinguished lamps in the house flared up

the people saw him already in the air. ...

{The etymological cognate of Vaidik \Varun.a\ < *\WOLUN-\ is Eddic \VOLUNd\, described as flying aloft.}

He always flew with one knee drawn up and arms outstretched; in the air wings sprouted from his shoulder blades and his mouth {lips : there is in the Classic of Mountains and Seas a deity whose lips extend over the face} grew to extend outward and up to his tattoo markings. ...

When ... returned ..., his power was so strong he could not descend. He had to fly around inside the house so that the breath of all the people inside "who had no spirits" could help him "get down.""

Rainey 1947 = Froelich G. Rainey : "The Whale Hunters of Tigara". In :- ANTHROPOLOGICAL PAPERS OF THE AMER MUS OF NATURAL HISTORY 41.2:229-83.

{As for this Inuit connection of whale-hunting with projection of the aitheric body, the term \AMBERgRIs\ (produced from giant-squids' beaks) found in the gut of sperm-whales, may be cognate with \AMBARIS.a\ (PE, q.v.), whose intended victim is divinely rescued via recitation of the "Varun.a Mantra".} {In \Yuwipi\, \-wipi\ may be cognate with TL-MRJ \WP\ 'to open', referring to miraculous opening (by summoned deities) of the enclosure consisting of wooden posts shutting-in the limb-bound performer; while in the TL-MRJ divine name \WP-WL-wt\, \WL-wt\ 'ways' may be cognate with Latin \vallum\ 'wall' (of enclosure constructed of wooden posts).}

6.1 (pp. 199-200) have one's limbs bound in order to enable evoke a divine reponse

p. 199

"the Lakota yuwipi ceremony ... . It is the spirits who set the shaman free from these bindings, usually leaving the original

{As in the Kota-tribes Yuwipi-miracle of a mortal's being untied by by a deity : according to the Veda, Varun.a is an unbinder of bonds; mythic hero S`unas-sepha is untied by the grace of god Varun.a (Devi-bhagavata Upa-puran.a 7 -- PE, s.v. "Vis`vamitra 4)", p. 873b).}

p. 200

knots in the rawhide strips. If the shaman wants the spirits to untie him more quickly, then he asks for ... the more pity the spirits take ... .

This technique extends to charms as well. For example, ... a bear-shaped charm designed to ward off illness caused by an evil bear spirit. The legs on the bear[-charm] were tied with a string [quoted from White Wolf 1957, p. 13] "to keep the cause of the disease tied or in an inactive state."

An interesting variation of binding occurs among the Kutenai. There

the shaman is bound with rope by the spirits [Turney-High 1941, p. 175]

{cf. the late inversion of Varun.a ro^le, from unbinding, to binding, of bonds}

versus being bound by his ceremonial assistants."

White Wolf 1957 = Chief White Wolf : Reminiscences. Sault News Printing Co.

Turney-High 1941 = Harry Holbert Turney-High : Ethnography of the Kutenai. MEMOIRS OF THE AMER ANTHROPOLOGICAL ASSN, #56.

6.1 (p. 200) instance of cosmic (into outer space) projection of the aitheric body

"during a vision quest it often happens that spirits will pick up the person and take him on a journey. This happened to Wallace Black Elk when ... the spirits carried him off into the "Universe of universes."

[quoted from Black Elk & Lyon, 1990, p. 7] Then those spirits started swinging me back and forth and threw me across the room in the dark. Another pair of hands caught me. ... They kept doing that, and on the fo[u]rth throw they threw me right through the ceiling. I sailed through that ceiling right out into the solar system. ... I could see all those stars around me, and they were showing me the powers of the universe."

Black Elk & Lyon, 1990 = Wallace H. Black Elk & William S. Lyon : Black Elk : the Sacred Ways of a Lakota. Harper & Row Publ, San Francisco.

6.1 (p. 202) Sekani tribe aitheric projection ("shaman's flight")

"for the Sekani of British Columbia. Among the Fort McLeod band this medicine power was known at anatok, while among those living near Forr Grahame it was known as senidje ... "air medicine."

[quoted from Jenness 1937, p. 75] ... It would squeeze a man between its "hands" and place him in a big kettle strewn with feathers to keep his body warm; and it filled him with such explosive force that he shot through the air like a bullet from a gun. ...

Another medicine, called ixwasi, that closely resembled it, caused its possessor to fly through the air like a bird, or like a tiny transparent man."

Jenness 1937 = Diamond Jenness : The Sekani Indians of British Columbia. NATIONAL MUS OF CANADA, BULLETIN #84 = ANTHROPOLOGICAL SERIES #20. Ottawa.

6.1 (pp. 202-3) Cheyenne man is released, by an elf ("little man"), from under a buffalo-pelt covering the hole in the ground whereinto he was placed

p. 202

"the famous Cheyenne medicine man, White Bull, who was also known as Ice ... received his powers during a vision quest ... from a spirit he called "the little man." ... His spirit told him that in the future he was to perform this particular feat ... .

p. 203

They dug a large hole, tied his feet and hands, and placed him in the hole during the night. They put a buffalo robe over the hole, and atop that ... four heavy boulders were placed[, one] on each corner.

[quoted from White Bull, in Grinnell 1923, vol. 2, pp. 116-7] I sat in the hole ...; my hands were tied behind my back by the wrists, and my fingers were tied together with a bow-string. The rope ... tied my feet together at the ankles. ...

Then I heard something moving by my side, and I looked, and there was the little man. He patted me on the back and sides ... . ... The little man said, "Shut your eyes." I did so, and the little man slapped me on the sole of my right foot, and then on the sole of my left, and took me by the hair and seemed to pull me up a little. Then the little man said, "Open your eyes." I did so, and found myself standing on the ground in front of the big lodge."

Grinnell 1923 = George Bird Grinnell : The Cheyenne Indians : Their History and Ways of Life. Yale Univ Pr, New Haven (CT).


6.2 (pp. 203-5) shape-shifting; evoking ("calling forth") of divinities

p. 203

"Shamans who fly can also change their shape, and often do so during flight. Inuit shamans are well-known for this ability."

p. 204

"Quite frequently a spirit is called forth to answer questions from an audience. ... Sometimes the spirit actually requires the shaman to perform a power display before it will appear. For example, this was the case for the Colville "To Be Cut In Two" ceremony whereby a [quoted from Spier 1938, p. 152 :] "spirit-fish came to the

p. 205

se'ance from the distant ocean and would not appear unless the shaman cuts himself in two.""

Spier 1938 = Leslie Spier : "The Sinkaietk or Southern Okanagon of Washington". In :- GENERAL SERIES IN ANTHROPOLOGY, #6 = CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE LABORATORY OF ANTHROPOLOGY, 2, pp. 1-262.

6.2 (p. 205) divinities who praeside of finger-interlacing string-figures

"string figures are also found along the west coast of North America where some figures are associated with spirits.

"Among nearly all Eskimo tribes there were various ... string figures. ..."

The making of certain figures accompanied by the proper chant can drive off an evil spirit. [Jenness 1922, p. 203, note 1]

"In Alaska ... many stories are told about this spirit of string figures, which could even become the guardian spirit of a shaman ... ." ...

Jenness reports [1922, p. 203, note 1] : "The natives of North Alaska and the Mackenzie delta believe that the opening stage in certain cat's cradle figures, or a development from it called 'Two Labrets,' has the power of driving away this spirit if performed more rapidly than the spirit itself can perform. ..."

The Kwakiutl also make string figures ... associated with certain spirits. For example, their "Padding under Coppermaker" string figure is associated with a sea spirit known as "Wealthy" and the "Double-Headed Serpent" figure is associated with a spirit that will cause one to faint upon seeing it." (Averkieva & Sherman 1992, p. 147)

Jenness 1922 = Diamond Jenness : The Life of the Copper Eskimos. REPORT OF THE CANADIAN ARCTIC EXPEDITION 1913-1918, 12:1-277.

Averkieva & Sherman 1992 = Julia Averkieva & Mark A. Sherman : Kwakiutl String Figures. Univ of WA Pr, Seattle.

6.3 (p. 209) retrieval of lost objects without using psychotropic herbs

"By the late 1600's even the English of Virginia believed that Powhatan shamans could "fin any lost article except a Bible." ...

Generally speaking ..., the shaman relies on a spirit to find something lost. For example, the Shasta shamans used the sun spirit to find lost things because "he can look around any place."

The location can also be acquired in a dream. [e.g., Smith 1974, p.153] ...

Parsons gives [1916, p. 170, fn. ++] an account of a Zun~i shaman who could only tell his client when some lost money would be found instead of where it could be found ... ."

Smith 1974 = Anne M. Smith : The Northern Utes. MUS OF NM, PAPERS IN ANTHROPOLOGY, #17. Albuquerque.

Parsons 1916 = Elsie Clews Parsons : "A Zun~i Detective". MAN 99:168-70.

6.3 (pp. 209-10) retrieval of lost objects through ingestation of psychotropic herbs

p. 209

"Among the Chemehuevi of Southern California the root of the Datura plant was utilized.

[quoted from Laird 1974, pp. 21-2 :] "In the dreams or visions which it induced the

p. 210

the whereabouts of lost articles might be revealed ... . Always the 'east root' was taken for this purpose, and its removal was accompanied by an apology ... to the plant and a request for the desired information."

Datura was also used by the Southern Paiute to find lost objects. [Kelly 1939, pp. 159 & 164]

The Zun[~]i use Datura to find thieves."

"a divination ceremony that involves the use of Datura ... is known as "Frenzy Witchcraft," and is used mainly to locate thieves or to trace stolen goods."

Laird 1974 = Carobeth Laird : "Chemehuevi Religious Beliefs and Practices". J OF CALIFORNIA ANTHROPOLOGY 1.1:19-25.

Kelly 1939 = Isabel T. Kelly : "Southern Paiute Shamanism". UNIV OF CA ANTHROPOLOGICAL RECORDS 2.4:151-67.

6.3 (p. 210) hand-tremblers, star-gazers, and listeners

"Most often hand-tremblers are called upon to diagnose illness ... . ...

[quoted from Morgan 1931, p. 392] "When the 'correct' cause 'comes to his mind,' his arm involuntarily shakes."

"listeners use the spirit of Coyote for their divinations. Stargazers also use the Gila Monster spirit." (Morgan 1931, p. 394)

"Gazing may be ... the diviner sees the chant symbol as an after-image of the heavenly body ["sun, moor {sic! read : "moon"}, or stars"] on which he is concentrating." (Reichard 1950, pp. 99-100)

Morgan 1931 = William Morgan : "Navaho Treatment of Sickness : Diagnosticians". AMER ANTHROPOLOGIST 33:390-402.

Reichard 1950 = Gladys Reichard : Navajo Religion. 2 voll. BOLLINGEN SERIES 28, Pantheon Bks, NY.

6.3 (p. 211) a mask for finding lost animals;

"The sacred Living Solid Face mask (Misingw) that belonged to the Delaware {Lenni Lenape} was used to recover lost things.

[quoted from Harrington 1921, p. 157] If anyone loses horses or cattle, either strayed away or stolen, he can go to the keeper of the Misingw ..., who in turn informs the Misingw ... . The loser then goes back home, and after a few days the missing animals return driven back by the Misingw ... ."

Harrington 1921 = M. R. Harrington : "Religion and Ceremonies of the Lenape". INDIAN NOTES & MONOGRAPHS, MISCELLANEOUS 19:1-249.

6.3 (pp. 211-3) a figurine for finding lost objects : heating; re-enactment

p. 211

"The Twana had a wooden figurine that shamans used to find lost objects, about four feet in height {stature} and shaped in the image of their "little earth" (dwarf) spirits. It had a handle on the rear side to hold it by. Among the Chehalis band this figure was called a caxwu. Once a spirit calling song was sung ... it would become animated of its own accord and moved about, dragging along its bearer. When in use, the handle of the caxwu became hot ... . When not in use, it was kept wrapped in cedar bark and hidden ... ."

p. 212

"they put ... the figures into the canoe and headed across the bay. Because the caxwu does not work on water, the figurines remained "quiet" and did not move during the crossing. Once on the other shore they built up a fire to "heat up" (activate) their figurines." (Elmendorf 1993, p. 245)

p. 213

"One of the more puzzling aspects here is the heating up of the caxwu during its use, to include their heating it up on a fire before starting up. ...

Another detail of this account ... is that when the caxwu would stop at a certain spot, the shamans would reenact whatever ... . ... This is reminiscent of the work of psychic detectives, who in trance, often ... experience what the victim experienced." (e.g., Renier 2005)

Elmendorf 1993 = William W. Elmendorf : Twana Narratives. Univ of WA Pr, Seattle.

Renier 2005 = Noreen Renier : A Mind for Murder. Berkley Bks. [reprinted 2008 by Hampton Roads]

6.3 (p. 214) dancing by listener-shaman

"Among the Yokuts there were huhuna dancers who "could hear money." People would gather at their dance grounds, hide money in various places, and then bring in the huhuna. [Quoted from Gayton 1930, p. 375 :] "Sometimes he wore a mask that covered his eyes. He danced around. As soon as he heard the hidden money he pointed to it with a stick he carried. {Cf. a dowser's wand.} He had his own winatum ["assistant"] who dug it out for him ... .""

Gayton 1930 = A. H. Gayton : "Yokuts-Mono Chiefs and Shamans". UNIV OF CA PUBL IN AMER ARCHAEOLOGY & ETHNOLOGY 24.8:361-420.

6.4 (p. 215) apport

"they put an object in a sealed glass case, and ... That night the camera recorded several instances of the object['s] moving out of the case and then back into it. ...

[quoted from Richards 1982, p. 209] "A study of the films involving apports has shed some light on this controversial aspect of psychokinesis. ... apports do behave in much the same way as observers a hundred years ago said they behaved. They seem to appear without being seen to cross space while reaching their destination, and they seem to vanish without being seen to move rapidly away from the observer."

This means ... would be seen to disappear ... only to reappear ... . The account (in Chapter 4) ... was another example of translocation." [This example is on p. 137 : "There was an extremely loud explosion that sounded in the lodge. ... The spirits had ... tossed this ... out of the lodge, without putting a hole in the lodge covers, no less ... ."]

Richards 1982 = John Thomas Richards : Sorrat : a History of the Neihardt Psychokinesis Experiments 1961-1981. Scarecrow Pr, Metuchen (NJ).

6.5 (p. 219) summoning a spirit to locate a lost cadavre in the event of accidental death in a river [quoted from Black Elk & Lyon 1990, pp. 169-70]

"I sat there and acted as interpreter for the spirit. ... Then we sang a song, and a beaver spirit came in. ... So the beaver said, "Oh sing four songs. I'm going to leave. ..." ... On the fourth song, he came back. ... Then he said, "Yes, I found him.""

Hallowell 1942 = A. Irving Hallowell : "The Role of Conjuring in Saulteaux Society". PUBL OF THE PHILADELPHIA ANTHROPO LOGICAL SOC 2:1-96.

6.5 (p. 221) communicating (via telepathy) with a lost hound

"Wintu shaman ... reported that, [quoted from Charles in Du Bois 1935, p. 97 :] "If a dog were lost while hunting, a doctor would sing and talk to the dog and tell him where his master was.""

Du Bois 1935 = Cora Du Bois : "Wintu Ethnography". UNIV OF CA PUBL IN AMER ARCHAEOLOGY & ETHNOLOGY 36.1:1-148.

6.6 (pp. 221-3) quaestoning-caerimonies

p. 221

"Questioning ceremonies often involved a "spirit interpreter" {"interpreter of tongues" in Pentacostal-type services} to converse between the shaman and the audience, especially when the shaman spoke in an "ancient language." Recall, in full trance the shaman is possessed by a spirit who often speaks through the shaman in an unknown language

p. 222

as well as in an unfamiliar voice." (Swanton in Barbeau 1958, p. 64)

"In addition, a spirit can red your mind such that you don't even need to speak your question. I learned this from such a spirit encounter I once had.

Another Wintu shaman ... put it simply as, [quoted from Charles in Du Bois 1935, p. 97] "Spirits ... know what I think." ...

Spirit-sent songs that are acquired during a vision quest are often in a "scared [sic! read : \sacred\] language." ... This is certainly true among the Lakota where the shaman's spirit-sent language is called hanbloglaka.

[quoted from Powers 1986, p. 25 :] "It is incomprehensible to common people ... . It represents a personal reenactment of a discourse between a single medicine man and his sacred {viz., immaterial praeternatural} helpers who communicate with him, and instruct him, during the course of one or more visions. Even the privileged {i.e., eerie/unworldly-voice-hearing} medicine man who has received a vision may have to wait for subsequent visions to understand the significance of his previous one(s).""

"there was often a lot of humor involved in these question sessions. ... One such shaman was a very entertaining Flathead man ... .

[quoted from Turney-High 1937, pp. 29-30] He was a constant source of entertainment ... . ...

p. 223

This shaman would consistently lie on his side and tell the room just who was approaching, how far away he was, just which horse he was riding, etc. ... he never made a mistake."

"a nearby Kalispel shaman, had the same ability. ... [quoted from Turney-High 1937, p. 31 :] "... As long as as he danced he, too, could tell who was coming, no matter how far away the traveler might be. Many Indians have recounted how ... every time Charlie called out their names, and opened the door for them. ..."

Klikitat shaman, Jake ..., was also [quoted from Du Bois 1938, p. 24] "capable of anticipating the arrival of an unannounced visitor."'

Barbeau 1958 = Marius Barbeau : Medicine Men on the North Pacific Coast. NATIONAL MUS OF CANADA, BULLETIN #152 = ANTHROPOLOGICAL SERIES #42, Ottawa.

Powers 1986 = William K. Powers : Sacred Language : the Nature of Supernatural Discourse in Lakota. Univ of OK Pr, Norman.

Turney-High 1937 = Harry Holbert Turney-High : The Flathead Indians of Montana. MEMOIRS OF THE AMER ANTHROPOLOGICAL ASSN, #48.

Du Bois 1938 = Cora Du Bois : The Feather Cult of the Middle Columbia River. GENERAL SERIES IN ANTHROPOLOGY, #7. George Banta Publ Co, Menasha (WI).

6.6 (pp. 224-5) humans who telepathize with their pet hounds

p. 224

"some seers had special powers to transcend ... human communication.

For example, [such] seers among the Yakima were in the class known as "small doctor" or "half doctor." In this class one could find ... "dog understanders." [Hines 1993, p. 39]

Among the Cascade there was an old woman who was a "dog understander." Two women decided to test her, and ... went to her house, ...

p. 225

turning over things and rolling them around, but putting them back in the original position. This time the woman told them that her dog said they [had been] moving her things around, and that they were trying to test her."

Hines 1993 = Donald M. Hines : Magic in the Mountains, the Yakima Shaman : Power & Practice. Great Eagle Publ, Issaquah (WA).

6.7 (pp. 225-7) Shaking-Tent caerimony

p. 225

"the shaking tent ceremony spread across Canada, ... to the Ottawas, Cree, Saulteaux, Naskapi-Montagnais, Menominis, Blackfeet (Blood and Peigan [read "Piegan"]), Gros Ventre, Sarsee, Kiowa, Cheyenne, Plains Cree, Dakota, Mandan, Assiniboin, and others.

The ceremony and the shape of the tent differs between shamans since [quoted from Ritzenthaler 1953b, p. 200] "each conjouror must have his tent built according to instructions received in his fasting dream as to shape, number of poles, kind of wood, etc." ...

[Quoted from Hallowell 1942, p. 80 :] "Old Yellow Legs is said to have had four lodges built on one occasion. He put an article of his clothing in {each of} three of them and entered the fourth himself. As soon as he was inside, all four lodges began to shake."

Shaking tent shamans were both men and women ... .

Only a shaman who has caught a helping spirit(s) {or rather, who hath acquired a praeternatural spirit-guide} can perform this ceremony. This ceremony cannot be sold or transferred to others, as is the case with amulets and charms {which can be so transferred}. When an Ojibwa djessakid (seer-type

p. 226

of shaman) acquired such powers from a manito (spirit) through a vision or drem, such power was usually not put to immediate use. One report states tha the shaman would wait until the same empowering vision {usually a dream} appeared four times before the ceremony could be performed. [Hallowell 1942, p. 42] ...

The upright poles, about twelve feet in length, numbered anywhere from four to ten. Great care was given to the selection of the trees that were to be used and their preparation as poles. [Tanner 1979, p. 92]

They were then set upright into the ground in a circle about four feet in diameter.

These were substantial poles, around four to six-inches in diameter, and set two feet deep into the ground. ... Once in the ground, the poles were ... brought close together near the top, leaving a one-foot diameter hole in the top of the lodge for the coming and going of the manitos. In some cases the poles were left upright, forming a large cylinder ... the shaman entered. Regardless of the shape, the poles were all tied together ... . ...

p. 227

Once he began singing his spirit-calling songs, their presence was made known by the swaying of the lodge poles. This shaking motion would become quite violent,

even to the point of the pole tops touching the ground.

{Poles that thick are not normally that flexible; some praeternatural effect may be in operation.}

The swaying would continue, often for hours upon end, until the manitos departed.

Unlike most divination ceremonies, the shaking tent was usually filled with many different kinds of spirits, each emitting a different sound.

Often they would come as tiny sparks of light, as seen in the Lakota yuwipi ceremonies, and sparks would fly from the top of the tent. ...

{These may be aequivalent to the "cloven tongues like as of fire" (Praxeis Apostolon 2:3), as well as to "the fire" (mentioned in 1st Melekiym 19:12).}

Mikenak (or ... Mikinak, Miqka:no, etc.), the Turtle spirit, was a frequent visitor recognized by his Donald-Duck-like voice. [Hallowell 1942, p. 45]

He was considered to be the most powerful of the Shaking Tent spirits. [Hoffman 1896, p. 148]

In Gros Ventre shaking tents, the spirits communicated via a 'whistling talk.'" (Cooper 1944, p. 67)

Tanner 1979 = Adrian Tanner : Bringing Home Animals. MEMORIAL UNIV OF NEWFOUNDLAND, SOCIAL & ECONOMIC STUDIES #23.

Hoffman 1896 = Walter James Hoffman : "The Menomini Indians". 14TH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY, Part 1, pp. 11-338.

Cooper 1944 = John M. Cooper : "The Shaking Tent Rite Among Plains and Forest Algonquians". PRIMITIVE MAN 17:60-84.

6.7 (pp. 227, 229, 232) praeternatural disposal of the bindings-&-knots

p. 227

"When the ceremony ended, the shaman would emerge, free of his bindings. Quite often these bindings, with knots still intact, would come flying out of the top of the tent soon after the shaman ended his singing.

... this is not a matter of the spirits['] untying the shaman's bindings, but of them {their} translocating the bindings in space such that the knots remain."

p. 229

[quoted from Nelson in Brown & Brightman 1988, p. 39] "a fluttering is heard ... and all of a Sudden, either from the top or below, away flies the cords by which the indian was tied into the lap of he {him} who tied him."

p. 232

[quoted from Garrick Mallery in Hoffman 1891, pp. 276-7] "accompanied by loud inarticulate noises, the motions gradually ceased when the voice ... was heard, telling ... to go to the house of a friend, near by, and get the rope. Now, ... he went for the rope, which he found at the place indicated, still tied exactly as he had placed it around the neck and extremities of the Jessakid."

Brown & Brightman 1988 = Jennifer H. S. Brown & Robert Brightman : "The Orders of the Dreamed" : George Nelson on Cree and Northern Ojibwa Religion and Myth, 1823. Minnesota Historical Soc Pr, St Paul (MN).

Hoffman 1891 = Walter James Hoffman : "The Mide'wiwin or 'Grand Medicine Society' of the Ojibwa". 7TH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY, pp. 143-300.

6.7 (pp. 229-30) advent of praeternatural black flies [quoted from Andre' in Armitage 1991, p. 82]

p. 229

"As soon as the shaman enters the tent, it starts to shake, the poles bend ... .

{the "earthquake" (1st Melekiym 19:11) as a forerunner of the "still, small voice"}

A whistling sound like a strong wind in the trees can be heard.

{the "mighty rushing wind" (Praxeis Apostolon 2:2) = the "great and strong wind" (1st Melekiym 19:11) as a forerunner of the "still, small voice"}

p. 230

Then the buzzing of black flies is heard, and ...

{These may be somewhat aequivalent to the deity of <eqrown, to wit, 'owner-of-flies' Strong's 1176 \Ba<al-zbuwb\.}

Once inside, the flies hurl themselves against the walls.

{This behaviour may correlate with Strong's 954 \Beelzeboul\ : \ba<al\ 'owner' of Strong's 2073 \ZBuwL\ 'habitation'.}

They are said to be the spirits of the animals the shaman has killed.

{On account of \ZiBL\ 'dung, manure' (DMWA, p. 433a), these may instead be spirits of scarab (dung-beetle).}

The sounds of animals can then be heard, the cries of caribou, geese (and other birds). ...

{"Wherein were all manner of fourfooted beasts ... and fowls of the air." (Praxeis Apostolon 10:12)}

Next, someone is heard speaking inside the tent ... .

{commonly known as the "still, small voice" (1st Melekiym 19:12) instructing (1st Melekiym 19:15-16) the nabiy> ('prophet')}

He acts as interpreter for the animals, the shaman, and the people asking the questions."

Armitage 1991 = Peter Armitage : The Innu (The Montagnais-Naskapi). Chelsea House Publ, NY.

Strong = James Strong : Hebrew and Aramaic Dictionary of Bible Words.

DMWA = Hans Wehr (ed. by J. Milton Cowan) : A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic. 4th edn. Wiesbaden : Harrassowitz, 1979.


William S. Lyon : Spirit Talkers : North American Indian Medicine Powers. Prayer Efficacy Publ, Kansas City (MO), 2012.