Tall Candle









Colorado Mine






Across the Border






Around the West



Candle in Heaven



Loreta Departeth



Javiela & Afterwards



Ri`o Yaki









Torim Again



Torim Yet Again








Dedication "a la tribu Yaqui"

"Rosalio Moise`s died in ... 1969, in Tucson, Arizona."


pp. x & xii Cahita

p. x

"The Yaquis, Mayos, and other tribes spoke dialects of the Cahita language of the Uto-Aztecan language stock."

p. xii

"The early Spanish {actually, Nahuatl, not "Spanish"} name for Cahita territory was Petatlan (petate-land, or place of mats), suggesting that ... carrizo cane mats for walls is indeed an aboriginal trait."

p. xiii Jesuit chronicle

"the Jesuits Andre`s Pe`rez de Ribas and Toma`s Basilio, along with some ... Tehueco Indians, entered Yaqui territory without military escort.

The chronicle of Pe`rez de Ribas is the classic source on the aboriginal culture of the Yaquis".

[(p. lvii) Andre`s Pe`rez de Ribas (transl., in a condensed form, from the Spanish by Toma`s Antonio Robertson) : My Life among the Savage Nations of New Spain. Los Angeles : Ward Ritchie Pr, 1968.]

{"Cabeza de Vaca spent several delightful months with the Sonora peoples and left singing the praises of this "attractive people." Marcos de Niza was equally complimentary. ... Much the same ... opinion is to be found in the Jesuit ... eulogies of the first missionaries, Basilio, Me`ndez, Azpilcueta" ("MFS", p. 55).} {However, conversion of the indigenes by Catholic missionaries was impeded by their discovery of extreme self-contradictions in doctrinal-based practices (which were naturally taken by Yaki as evidences of gross hypocrisy) within Catholic Christianity, e.g., whereas when a woman while being baptized was stricken and slain by levin, the Jesuits remarked "that God ... had especially blessed this woman by calling her to heaven" ("MFS", p. 91); yet in evident contradiction to this evaluation of the significance of death by levin-strike, the same Jesuits "demolished" ("MFS", p. 90) a shrine sanctifying the cadaver of a chief who had been slain by being stricken with levin. For the indigenous religions of Pueblo Indian tribes, being stricken with levin is fraught with a great significance, as, e.g., amongst the Hopi "whenever a person survives a lightning strike, he gets in initiated into the business of curing. By being struck, he gets to see things in a clear way and, as a result, learns ... healing." (HSWSh&M, p. xxx) Hopi levin-strike survivors "later dreamed that the cloud deities had imbued them with some of their power, which he had to use on the pain of death, for helping others." (HSWSh&M, p. xxxi)}

"MFS" = John Francis Bannon (ed. by James A. Reynolds) : "The Mission Frontier in Sonora". In :- Charles W. Polzer (ed.) : The Jesuit Missions of Northern Mexico. SPANISH BORDERLANDS SOURCEBOOKS, 19. 1991. pp. 35-202. http://books.google.com/books?id=cJg1HrURPjQC&pg=PA90&lpg=PA90&dq=

HSWSh&M = Ekkehart Malotki & Ken Gary : Hopi Stories of Witchcraft, Shamanism, and Magic. U of NE Pr, Lincoln, 2001.

pp. xxiv-xxv the Surem

p. xxiv

"Long ago, the Surem lived along the Yaqui River

on one of the now abandoned channels south of the modern river.

{Cf. the antient civilization located in a now-dry river-channel, the Sarasvati, southeast of currently-flowing river-channels in the Pan~jab.}

These people were short statured ... . ...

{"certain short, stocky family types ... were referred to" (HM, p. 324) as the (mythical) Mu and Wa.}

One day in Surem country a dead mesquite tree or dry pole ... began

{cf. the non-foliated tree carven into the Temple of the Cross at Palenque in Chiapas.}

p. xxv

to go tap-tap-tap like a telegraph set,

{This (spirit-rappping on wood) is likewise commonplace in modern-day communication with spirits in Europe and in the United States.}

but no one could understand what it was saying. ... the wise man, Mapoli, who lived in the north near Guaymas Bay, ... said his daughter could tell them what it meant. ... The tapping tree told of many wonderful things that were to happen. ... The other Surem have disappeared, and their river died."

p. xxv "Other versions are given by Spicer." [p. xxv, fn. 7 : "Edward Spicer, Pascua, a Yaqui Village in Arizona (Chicago : University of Chicago Press, 1940), p. 240; also "Potam," p. 121."]

HM = Martha Beckwith : Hawaiian Mythology. Yale U Pr, 1940.

p. xxv unintelligible, or secret, language

"The story of the Tower of Babel, also referred to as the Tower of Babylonia, refers to the native Indian languages of Sonora." {The same tale is also sometimes applied to the pyramid at Cholula.}

{This may have prae-Columbian local significance : the Sonora River valley is ("MFS", p. 53) "in all probability Coronado's "Valle de Suya."" /SUYA/ may be the source of the name /SUYuA/ (or /Zuyua/) of the figurative ritual-terminology described Books of Chilam Balam. The Maya language is known to be related to the Zun~i language, so that may be possible that the Sonora River valley may be the original homeland of the Maya-s.}

{The Zun~i formerly buried their dead in caverns; and "The Sonora tribes suppose that the ghosts of the dead inhabit mountain caverns" (Ch&GuM, p. 47).}

Ch&GuM = Americus Featherman : Chiapo- and Guarano-Maranonians. SOCIAL HISTORY OF THE RACES OF MANKIND, vol. III. Kegan Paul, Trench, Tru:bner & Co, London, 1890. http://books.google.com/books?id=s2ATAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA47&lpg=PA47&dq=

pp. xxix-xxx sabio (sapiens)

p. xxix

"Several categories of individuals specialize in dealing with ... the supernatural world : ... wise men (sabios), and curers (curanderos) ... . ...

Some individuals who do not fully qualify for the exalted position of sabio fulfill the role of fortuneteller. ...

{Fortune-tellers (by way of "tarot, palm") are largely of non-Yaki ethnicity : QD, p. 180.}

p. xxx

Rosario saw only one of the great sabios in his lifetime, a man called Jose` Mari`a No`teme."

[Apud No`teme, vide infra, pp. 150-1; cited in T-N, p. 117.]

QD = Heather Valencia & Rolly Kent : Queen of Dreams : the story of a Yaqui dreaming woman. Simon & Schuster, NY, 1991.

T-N = Jeffrey M. Schulze : Trans-Nations: Indians, Imagined Communities, and Border Realities. ProQuest, 2008. http://books.google.com/books?id=XEAj50MjIfYC&pg=PA117&lpg=PA117&dq=

pp. xxx-xxxi death from fright; praying-to-death

p. xxx

"A fright adminstered by the Yaquis is believed to have been responsible for the death of the hated Governor Iza`bal.

Supernatural fright caused by a ghost climbing upon one's shoulders could result in the guts rising. This may lead rapidly to death".

{A person may be "frightened to death" ("POGSDO") by Maasaw.}

"Rosalio said that it was widely believed among Arizona Yaquis that he was a witch {brujo} because so many of his enemies there had died. He publicly uttered remarks, which he called "prayers," against various people, ...

his "prayers" were answered, and this is ... the reason for his Arizona reputation. On the other hand, he says that no one in the Yaqui villages {in Sonora} ever suspected him of witchcraft {brujeri`a}.

p. xxxi

The claims that he was a witch amused rather than scared him, perhaps because he was safely removed from Arizona most of the time."

{That R.M. later died while visiting Tucson, Arizona, is an indication that the danger to him was real enough; perhaps his venturing into a hostile environment (instead of staying in the safe environment of Lubbock, TX) hastened his demise.}

{That he was much-suspected (in Arizona) of brujeri`a was evidently why his kinsman Anselmo had to maintain (after R.M.'s death and interrment of the corpse in Arizona) a public stance (praetense, within Arizona) of refusing to acknowledge him as "father" (meaning 'godfather', padrino), and of refusing to honor his grave -- two features which appear prominently in the book Queen of Dreams, by Heather Valencia : perhaps he may have been slightly disappointed at her taking his public feint literally.} {Rosalio Moise`s's "own son brands the book [Tall Candle] a pack of lies" (YW, p. 25) for the same reason, namely to evade approving a biography of, and therefore by implication the actions of, an accused practitioner of brujeri`a.}

{That the Arizona refugees from Sonora were so eager to fabricate accusations of "witchcraft" (which is a thoroughly Christian-style accusation, being mainly Dominican and especially Lutheran), would indicate that the Arizona "Yaki" were more thoroughly Christianized (Dominicanized and/or Lutheranized) than are the Sonoran Yaki.}

"POGSDO"= "How Maasaw and the People of Oraibi Got Scared to Death Once". In :- Ekkehart Malotki : Hopitutuwutsi: Hopi Tales. Flagstaff : Mus of Northern AZ Pr, 1978.

p. xxxi techniques of brujeri`a

"Some of the various techniques described by Rosalio as being used by witches seem to derive from European witchcraft.

{These "European" techniques may all derive, howbeit, from Oriental sources.}

He mentioned the use of dolls into which pins are stuck, stinging herbs rubbed, and so forth;

the gathering of dirt from a footprint and the subsequent burying in the graveyard of this

dirt wrapped with thorns in a cloth; and

the grinding up of human bones to place in food."

{Powdred bones of the human dead are eaten in funebrial caerimonies of some South American tropical-forest AmerIndian tribes.}

p. xxxi affluence leading to being accused

"unusual affluence ... opens the door to charges of witchcraft. It may be noted that ... accused witches were fairly well off".

{In Europe, the persons accused were usually widows who owned houses, the house thereupon being confiscated (according to law) by the accuser.} {In Africa, the only persons accused were wealthy persons who neglected to rendre sufficient donations to secret societies (which confiscated the property of the wealthy while torturing them to death).}

pp. xxxi-xxxiii interpretation of omens & of dreams

p. xxxi

"The interpretation of the meaning of signs and an evaluation of these ... was something that occupied Rosalio almost perpetually. ...

p. xxxii

Most important were visions and dreams that foretold the future. He has been given many visions in his life, the most important of which was his trip to heaven ... . Aside from his trip to heaven, he had many dreams that contained omens and glimpses of future events. A dream that recurred ... often ... was that he was flying; as he got older, he flew lower.

When the flying dreams first came to him, he saw tall buildings, big cities, and other things distant in time and space such as he had never seen before. ...

{But had he seen pictures of, and/or read or heard descriptions of, such sites? I have seen in a dream a city covered by a transparent dome, with curved-winged vehicles flying through an aperture at the summit of the dome -- but I had seen such illustrated in science-fiction magazines many years before.}

p. xxxiii

The dreams just described were unsolicited, as it were.

On many occasions he went to bed with the intention of having a dream that would give him certain information about a particular subject.

{This is so-called "dream-incubation".}

He told me that these dreams always came about 3:00 A.M."

{I have likewise noticed a tendency for significant dreams to occur to me at about 3:00 A.M. (waking then).}

p. xxxii praeternatural candle

"I have tried unsuccessfully to trace the origin of the ... belief alluded to in the title of this book, that each person has a candle burning in heaven

{Slaves sometimes believe that they have a "candle in heaven" ("LCH"), held by angel -- guiding them to protection from being abused by cruel slave-owners?} {Otherwise, a religious minister can be regarded (in Africa) as "candle in heaven" (FL, p. 64) for the congregation.} {"Revelation begins with 7 letters to 7 churches - each church has a candle in Heaven" ("CR") -- for a 7-branch mnorah (candlestick).}

and that one lives until his candle burns down."

{Another explanation of why some lives consume themselves sooner than others, is that shorter lives are due to "burning the (or, one's) candle at both ends", "in the same way a witch might burn a candle at both ends" (MBSH, p. 72).}

{One's "candle in heaven" may, however, be "black" ("OMH") -- cf. the (alternatively described as "candlelike" -- "2GD", pp. 27 & 30 & 33) "two condensed, dark, almost black, menacing sticks." ("2GD", p. 32)}

"LCH" = "Light a Candle in Heaven" http://www.pennysisto.com/gallery/view_desc.asp?albumID=2&id=15

FL = Olusola A. Areogun : Follow the Leader. XLibris, 2012.

"CR" = "Conspiracy OF Religion" http://www.abovetopsecret.com/forum/thread932821/pg1

"OMH" = http://hellopoetry.com/poem/in-one-of-many-hells-where-we-sharpen-up-our-horns-plotting-our-revenge-as-we-wait-to-be-born/

"2GD" = "The 2nd Gate of Dreaming", Cap. III of Carlos Castan~eda : The Art of Dreaming. https://archive.org/stream/CarlosCastaneda/CarlosCastaneda1993-TheArtOfDreaming_djvu.txt

MBSH = Eric W. Bragg : The Midnight Blade of Sonic Honey. Lulu.com, 2008. http://books.google.com/books?id=4bAgg57M4uIC&pg=PA72&lpg=PA72&dq

p. xxxiii instruments of brujeri`a "which have not been previously recorded"

"A chone is a scalp, or a doll to which a scalp is attached, that has supernatural powers. [cf. infra p. 95]

{The "choni" is described as merely a braid of hair (without any scalp) in QD, p. 222.}

Magical cigarettes made from native tobacco (macucho) can be sent through the air to spy on people ... . [cf. infra pp. 94-5] ...

A witching olla, or pot, was described as having been used by two Yaqui witches". [cf. infra p. 20]

{As a matter of relevance of the choni to the candle, in Italy "It is believed that if you burn a candle at both ends, it will lead to the life of a hairdresser." ("OC")}

"OC" = "The Old Country" http://ed.wikia.com/wiki/The_Old_Country

p. xxxiii books of magical incantations

"El justo juez {'The Just Judge'} is a book of recitations cited ... as a powerful supernatural agent. Correct recitation is is an arduous task, and complete recitation two or three times is required for really strong protection. Once the recitation has been correctly performed, one can, for example, walk out of jails unseen. Rosalio ... found it too risky, as incorrect recitation backfires. [vide infra, p. 51]

He preferred a mail-order book called El oculto talisman which had much shorter recitations."

pp. xxxiii-xxxiv praeternatural beings

p. xxxiii

"Sierpas are giant animals that live in canyons, caves, and elsewhere. ... By and large the sierpas are supposed to reside in their subterranean lairs,

feeding on whatever can be sucked in,

{"drawn in by a sucking-monster" (Ponca -- T-ThNAM, p. 143)} {"from way underground ... it ... could draw people into it with its breaths" (L&LPPI, p. 305).}

growing larger and larger until one day they go to the sea, where they stay. ... The most famous sierpa story concerns ...

an argolito. The latter is a little man from another world who streaks through the air with a long rope trailing behind him. ...

{Is the name of Jose` ARGueLLes related to that of this ARGoLito?}

p. xxxiv

Beals [1945, p. 199] mentions ... this ... story and its ... dwarf ..., the latter

being called a suawa`ka.

{name perhaps cognate with that of Polynesian god /Sua/ = Hua, whose seer Lua-ho>omoe's 2 sons are each named (HM, p. 382) "Kaa", i.e. /ka>a/ 'thread, line of fibre' (HD) [= the "long rope" of the argolito?].}

T-ThNAM = Robert Harry Lowie : The Test-theme in North American Mythology. Columbia U, 1908. ://books.google.com/books?id=8dQWAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA143&lpg=PA143&dq=

L&LPPI = Dean & Lucille Saxton : Legends and Lore of the Papago and Pima Indians. U of AZ Pr, Tucson, 1973.

Beals 1945 = Ralph L. Beals : The Contemporary Culture of the Cahita Indians. Washington (DC).

HM = Martha Beckwith : Hawaiian Mythology.

HD = Pukui & Elbert : Hawaiian Dictionary.

pp. xlv-xlvi names

p. xlv

"He was given the name Rosalio Moise`s Valenzuela at birth. ... The Spanish name Valenzuela was chosen ... in preference to the Yaqui name, Cochemea or

Kochemea, that his father used. ...

p. xlvi

Hurtado is the Spanish name adopted by Rosalio's mother's family instead of the Yaqui name Liowe. I always knew him as

Simon Palos, a name he adopted in 1934 ... .

{in reference to the mythic poles of "greasewood ... four long ones" (L&LP&PI, p. 313)?}

At an earlier date he had gone by the names Miguel Venegas and Jose` Ramos for a time."

Jane Holden Kelley & William Curry Holden : The Tall Candle : the personal chronicle of a Yaqui Indian. U of NE Pr, Lincoln, 1971.