Tall Candle, 11-15

p. 171 persons in Cocorit & Potam

"Dominga had lived in a nice adobe house in Cocorit ... .

Dominga married Anselmo Romero Matos of Potam".

{This couple afterwards became the parents of (YW, p. 171) Anselmo Valencia, who later resided at Torim.}

pp. 174-7 chief Anwamea

p. 174

"I sent along a small present that Dr. Holden had left for Chief Huasula, a little red book he had written about the Yaquis. ... we walked up into the Sierra to where the chief lived, reaching the mountain village ... . We ... then went on to see Calistro Huasula and his soldiers. ... He presented me to all his people, saying, "This is the son of Captain Miguel Palos. Miguel Palos was my best friend here in the mountains." ... "I was born in 1874 in the Bacatete Mountains," he said. ... His real name was Calistro Anwamea, or Hard to Kill in English. ... . ... Chief Huasula said, "Tell we what the Americans have been telling ... ."

"... Every one of these gentlemen are good friends of the Yaquis. ...

p. 175

The chiefs governor of Torim liked what Dr. Holden said ... . Now Dr. Holden and his friends have published a little book, which he said must be of some help to the Yaquis. ..."

Chief Huasula said, "Well, ... I sure thank them for telling about the Yaquis in a book. Now, you read this book to me."

I started reading from the book ..., translating from English to Yaqui. ...

The chief said, "Well, I like every word in the red book. ..."

We left ... . ... All week long I thought about the mountain chief ... . ... But every night I had the same dream ... . ... A great train ran very fast from the east toward the sun down ... . I could see the chief standing at a

p. 176

curve ... ahead. When the train reached the curve, it left the track and exploded. Then I saw Chief Calistro Huasula ... was hurt. ...

Friday ... two Sierra Yaquis brought the bad news to Captain Juan Camasehua in Vicam ... . ...

p. 177

The governors of Torim, ... Hurivis, and Rahum got together and had me write to Dr. Holden, telling him about this terrible thing and asking him to inform government officials in Mexico City".

pp. 179-80 hunting for rats as meat

p. 179

"She just went looking for rats and cactus when there was nothing else to eat. Big rats build nests up high in mesquite trees. She had to walk three or four miles to find any rats ... since the poor Yaqui families hunted out every rat nest near the pueblo. ...

p. 180

The name of our village, Torim, mean rats; maybe people here have always had to eat rats."

p. 182 deer guard bird

"the deer guard bird , a big brown bird that looks like an eagle ... always cries when he sees a hunter, to warn the deer."

p. 184 a woman who went about nude

"... soon went crazy. She walked around without any clothes on".

p. 185 he became a creditor

"It looked like Torim needed a store. So many people needed food and so few had money that our provisions were soon gone and all we had left was a stack of credit slips. Many people in Torim still owe me money for things they bought in my store in 1942."

p. 188 yoeta

"A yoeta, at Corasepe, ... is a cowboy who cries out three times in a row. No one ever sees him. Just the three yips, or gritos, each one farther away. The {Spaniards} call the Corasepe yoeta by the name Santeaguen~o."

pp. 189-92 cemetery-sorcery

p. 189

"were deported together in 1926. As was the case with so many people deported that year, they were shipped to central Mexico and turned loose, rather than being sold as slaves. In Mexico the two younger sisters learned witchcraft. ...

p. 190

They always had lots of boy friends. ...

... ... was a great talker (hablador) ... . He started telling people, including me, that A... and C... made little cloth dolls that they called by the name of a person ...; they then stuck pins into them. Sometimes A... and C... took these dolls to the cemetery ... and buried them. They did not need anything that had belonged to the person ... . ... After ... ... had told everyone that A... and C... were witches, they made a doll of him and buried it in the cemetery. ...

p. 191

They say that she ground up some bones of a dead person from the cemetery ... .

[Her husband] had always beat A... a lot because she had plenty of boy friends. One who came to see her every two weeks was ... called ... Cornicero (the bugler) ... . ... After [her husband] died in 1942, A... ... picked up some dirt from where ... ... ([her deceased husband]'s father) had stepped {his footprint}, ... and wrapped the dirt and lots of thorns in a cloth, which she buried in the cemetery.

[A...'s deceased husband's father] was a ... chief. ... people said he lived with his two daughters like they were his wives. ...

p. 192

A... then bewitched [her deceased husband]'s mother, ... ..., by making a doll, sticking needles in it, and rubbing ashes in the eyes. The ashes were of the huvacvena, a very poisonous bush with a bad odor that grows all around the Rio Yaqui. ... .

C... ... became infatuated with ... ... from Vicam, who was many years her junior. ... It is said that she killed them by making an olla of the explosive witch medicine ... . ... C... ... started living with ... the younger brother of A...'s deceased husband. ...

The last person bewitched by the ... sisters ... was [Cornicero], A.'s long-time boy-friend. ... They say that A... ... stuck pins and thorns in the feet of a doll named [Cornicero], and before long he ... could not walk."

p. 193 favorable day of the year, for marriages

"The Di`a del Virgin del Camino is the time when everyone gets married, even people who have lived together for thirty years."

pp. 198-9 learning the Mayo language from his woman

p. 198

"PANCHA ... just arrived at my house one day in 1946. ... I let her stay. This was my birthday ... . ... Pancha's mother was ... ..., a Mayo ... .

p. 199

... Being a Mayo, Pancha spoke practically no Yaqui ... . She began teaching me Mayo, and soon I was pretty good at talking Mayo".

pp. 200-2 omen foreboding a demise; judicial murder; revenge by sorcery

p. 200

"buzzards over the Valencia house started crying "Manuel, Manuel" every night. ...

{I have a great many times (for years, ending decades ago) heard a wild bird audibly enunciating some English-language clause (which I had earlier repeatedly enunciated in order to induce a parroted response); but I ascribed this to some spirit using the bird's natural cry as a timely opportunity to introduce the English-language clause.}

Buzzards roost in cottonwood trees around Torim every night ... . Whenever they call a name night after night, that person will die.

Manuel ... was the son of ... and Cornelia ...; they were Mayos ... . ... For years he had been one of J... ...'s boy friends. Her other boy friend was ... the Yaqui captain of the pueblo. On Christmas Eve, J... ... ..., going to [her other boy-friend, the Yaki captain], she accused Manuel ... . ... By midnight the Torim officials had sentenced Manuel to death. ...

p. 201

The whole pueblo felt that the Torim officials had acted unjustly. ... General Ramo`n Rivera, a Mayo who was the highest ranking ... officer in Vicam ... picked up the Torim officials ... . ...

Cornelia went to see a Mayo witch living in Cocorit, R... A..., to ask him to harm all the ones who had anything to do with killing her son. One by one they all died ... . [Those who thus first died included two lieutenants and a sargeant.] The last to die were the ... Captain

p. 202

... ... and Commandant ... ... ...within a week in 1952."

p. 202 a sabio who could find lost objects, and could identify a thief

"Ramo`n Arpero was a sabio ..., and was able to find lost articles or tell who had stolen something. To identify a thief, he would take a glass of water, break an egg in it ..., and the image of the thief appeared in the glass."

p. 204 unbeliefs

"Cocomorachi ... do not like the Yaqui religion; they say it is a lot of foolishness. Maybe that is because they are part Tarahumara. My mother, also a Cocomorachi, never believed ... either."

{The Tarahumara, who retain more of their indigenous religion than do the Yaki, tend to regard the excessive Christianization of the Yaki as mere "foolishness".}

p. 209 apparitional golden flame

"I saw a gold flame at Roroiscahue, as the Yaquis call it, or Cerro de Delores in Spanish. This flame is a lumbre in Spanish and taji in Yaqui. One can go crazy from seeing such flames. This was a famous lumbre; I had been told of it when I lived in Tucson."

pp. 210-4 praemonition of a flood; its advent

p. 210

"All over the Yaqui country the Yaquis knew that a flood was coming, because snakes and frogs were climbing trees. This is a sign that God {specifically, deities of snakes and of frogs} sends to warn ... of high water. ... Pancha and I ... saw rattlesnakes, other snakes, ... and toads up in the mesquite trees. ...

p. 211

Soon the ... guardia received a telegram from ... upriver, saying that the river was cresting at a high level. ... Telegraph messages about the height of the water were sent ... every hour, and the ... soldiers kept warning everybody. ... We quickly packed ..., and started walking north in the darkness. ... .

p. 212

... we saw the ghost of Babu-u weatring a black coat. He walked across the road in front of us, scaring my dog ... . ...

p. 213

The water continued to rise. Loud crashes came from the brush as big saguaros fell. By this time the telephone and telegraph wires were down. ...

Some little airplanes came to drop food to the stranded Yaquis. ... A big boxcar, sent from Mesa City, Arizona, arrived at Vicam Switch on January 17. It contained food and clothes for the flood victims. A large airplane flew over Vicam on January 18, dropping four large packages, each containing four hundred blankets."

p. 214

"A Mexican from Guaymas came on January 22, bringing rubber rafts for rescue work. They picked up lots of people; some said they had been in the top of mesquite trees for three or four days without food."

pp. 214-5 a false report : {"Rosalio ... gave a tragic account of the drowning of a half-brother and his family in a Yaqui valley flood. That brother lived for many years after the flood, and none of his family was drowned." (YW, p. 25)}

p. 214

"his son ... said that ... he didn't see them any more. That is what the boy told me, Rosalio, so I guess Manuel and Rosa are dead. ...

{It is likely that this boy had been coached by M.G. to make this misleading statement. M.G. could have done this simply to shock R.M., so that he could afterward tell to others the tale of how gullible R.M. was, as to believe any which unlikely tale.} {Another such unlikely tale (supra pp. 160-1), readily believed by R.M., was that told by M.C. (praetending it as a personal experience) of having to hold onto a tree -- rather alike to Odysseus on the figtree at Kharubdis -- to evade being sucked-in.}

p. 215

Days later [M.G.] found the bodies of Manuel, Rosa, and their two children."

{It is possible that M.G.'s false report (intended as a practical joke) was at first believed by R.M., until he found out otherwise; and that he may be repeating this report (without the later, correcting information) simply to illustrate to anthropologists, through its effect on them, how shocked he had felt on first hearing M.G.'s false report.}

{If evading a sucking-monster, or surviving being drowned, were told as dream-experiences, they could be true, even shamanicly aedifying. Otherwise they can be no more than entertaining jokes. Much of mythology is jokery (satire, of it some social satire) anyway.}

p. 219 identifying a burglar from a footprint

"I found a footprint in the soft floor, and I went at once to find ... ..., an expert tracker

who can identify the footprints of everyone in Torim. ...

{If so, this must be accomplished with some praeternatural assistance.}

"That is where ... ... stepped.""

p. 219 his ultimate decision to depart from Sonora

"I have been here in this village for seventeen years ... . I have suffered every one of those seventeen years."

p. 221 a death (of same woman as pp. 198-9) after childbirth

"Pancha died ... after giving birth to a baby girl."

pp. 230-1 his becoming a debt-creditor again

p. 230

"poor Yaquis began asking for a little credit. I always gave them whatever they asked for. ... Before long ... we had to close. ...

p. 231

Yaquis still came for groceries on credit, but I had to tell them that I had lost too much money by extending credit. Many people in Torim have never paid me the money for groceries they bought on credit in 1950."

pp. 231-2 omen from chicks' hatching; a death

p. 231

"On June 12 our hen hatched seventeen baby chickens. ... Three were black. ...

"Bad luck is coming very near us." ...

One of the black

p. 232

babies jumped all around. ... It started trying to crow ... . ...

It is a bad omen for chicks ... . ...

Two weeks later at letter came ... saying tht my half sister was in the hospital and she wanted me to come at once. ... We bought her body home. The Yaquis in Hermosillo do not choose godparents for the dead any more."

p. 234 funeral-types are distinguished by whether or not the deceased was married in the [Catholic] Church {Are nuns counted as "married in the Church" (as "brides of Christ)?}

"The pascolas dance for children who die and for people who have not been married in the church."

{"The ideal in Yaqui society is for individuals to marry in the church" (YW, p. 41).}

p. 236 omen from dream about departure aboard ship

"a dream that ... was on a ship that was leaving. This dream always means that that person will die soon."

pp. 236-8 being bewitched with jariondia is indicated by a bitter flavor to one's all food

p. 236

"when she cured me the year before I ... told her I would bring her a real gift the next time I came. I did not have a gift ..., so I did not ... see her. The next morning I woke up sick. ...

{Evidently her helper-spirit (helping her by curing for her) was offended by his neither paying further, nor even coming to her social event in order to praise her and to announce publicly his indebtedness to her (i.e., to her spirit). If he would do so, he would not become sick, or would have been more easily absolved.}

p. 237

Everything I ate tasted bitter ... . ... . ... I went to find a Papago curandero ... . ... "... A woman ... formed a ball of green jariondia leaves inside your stomach, but it will pass ... ." ... I stepped outside and vomited a green, leafy ball."

"a Yaqui curandero ... asked for a glass of water ... . A few minutes later the entire figure of a woman ...

{Despite this praeternatural confirmation that his own lack of propre respect for his cureress had sickened him, he still neglected to display the needful respect!}

p. 238

appeared in the glass. Her face was quite clear." [The figure-and-face was of the woman who had cured him.]

p. 238 belief in witchcraft?

"Neither Dominga nor her son Anselmo {the subject of the book Queen of Dreams} believe in witches. I have always known about witches".

{Nothing supernatural (including witchcraft) can be truly harmful. Effects of witchcraft are divinely designed to admonish or to instruct the "victim". Some of that admonition may be intented to inculcate respect for witchcraft itself, which is a divinely-inspired avocation.}

p. 238 love-magic

"when I was visiting Tucson, a Yaqui ... asked me if I could teach him some techniques, as his wife had left him and he wanted her back."

{"You put the hummingbird in a little cradle ..., ... and if anything goes wrong ... tell it to come alive again in the heart of your love" (QD, p. 195).}

pp. 238-9 visitations by ghosts

p. 238

"Three days after he died in 1956, he knocked on my door, and called "Hello." ... He still comes to the door once in a while".

"Another time a

p. 239

ghost I did not know got in the house and embraced me."

p. 241 acknowledgements (by J.H.K.)

"my father, William Curry Holden, gave me full access to his extensive diaries, notes, tapes, and photographs of the Yaquis. He had in his possession the diaries of Drs. Wagner and Studhalter written during various expeditions to the Yaqui Valley."

Jane Holden Kelley & William Curry Holden : The Tall Candle : the personal chronicle of a Yaqui Indian. U of NE Pr, Lincoln, 1971.