"Chinese Religion in Its Historical Development"

p. 18 inhuman forms of deities, in the "Warring States" era







red-haired horned human-headed serpent


his son Kou-lun = T>u-po ('Count of the Earth')

horned 3-eyed tiger-headed 9-coiled [serpent]


the Sun

[an infant]

p. 9 -- bathed each morning by his charioteeress-mother +Hsi-ho


"Lord on High"

enormous giant


Ho-po ("Count of the River")

"great fish"

p. 8 -- "in his chariot drawn by" turtles


"Count of the Wind"

"bird with a deer's head"


"Master of Thunder"

"dragon with a man's head"


"Master of Rain"

"perhaps a toad"


funeral services






moment of death

a carrier of the caerimonial "vestment of the deceased climbed upon a roof and turning to the north, the region of the dead, called the soul by its infant name, crying" out thrice.

{is the soul of the dead become thought of as having hidden amongst souls awaiting re-birth as new babies?}

immediately afterwards

"The eyes were closed,


the jaws separated as as to keep the mouth open, and

{cf. Kemetian caerimony "opening of the mouth" for the mummy}

the feet tied to a stool".


during the following 2 days

"Nineteen complete costumes were hung up first for the Small Exhibition, with

{cf. 19^2 days in Chinese Jupiter-year = 1/12th Jupiter-cycle}

still more for the Grand Exhibition on the following day. ...


On the last evening, the body was put into the coffin which was closed up ... and set in a pit at the foot of the earthen terrace in the principal room of the house".

{cf. holes in the ground, communicating with the netherworld of the deities: Hopi sipapu; Roman mundus}


from the following day onward

the deceased's offspring "used the staff of mourning to support themselves while walking."

{cf. Kemetian gods leaning on staves}


much later: procession to burial-site

"brandishing his halberd ...," a fan-hsian, "a sorcerer who could discern evil influences and drive them away.

{with halberd, later held by Daoist idols, cf. Teutonic battle-axe}

Then came a four-wheeled cart bearing the casket wrapped in white linen and


followed by a banner inscribed with the dead man's name, ...

{cf. Exodos-procession with banners inscribed with tribes' names}

and by a chariot loaded with victims."



upon arrival at the burial site: entities taken down into the burial vault

p. 11 "There the coffin was taken down into the tomb ...


p. 12 "victims were brought, men and women first, or their substitutes, and then


animal sacrifices".



upon return of the mourners

"the deceased become ancestor. ... The tablet bearing his name took its appointed place beside his grandfather's and opposite his father's."

{cf. giving same names to alternate generations}

p. 26 after-death abode of soul, by social status




"the Yellow Springs with the Nine Darknesses", as "prisoners in the Count of Earth's dark jails"


"with the Lord on High"

non-royal nobility

"in their funerary temple, near the tomb."

p. 27 dangers to the soul of the dead, in its travelling the world-directions -- according to the C^ao-hun ("Summons to the Soul") poe:m in the C^>u Tz>u ("Songs of the South")






Giant 1000 cubits tall [cf. 100-feet-tall Lun-po giants -- p. 228]



Tattoed Brows & Blackened Teeth; vipers & pythons 100 leagues long; the 9-headed hydra



Moving Sands 1000 leagues wide; whirling about into the Thunder-chasm; red emmets big as elephants, & black wasps as big as gourds



ice-mountains, flying snow for 1000 leagues



tigers & panthers guard the 9 Gates into heaven; a 9-headed man choppeth the 9000-branch tree;



"Wolves ... toss men into the air ..., then cast them into the abyss, Obeying the orders of the Lord on High; and then they sleep." [Caelestial Wolf is star Sirius -- p. 227]



"the Count of the Earth, nine-coiled [cf. P>an-ku "Coiled Antiquity"], sharp are his horns ... and bloody his claws; ... Three eyes he has {cf. [Vaidik] Tri-ambaka} and a tiger's head, a body like a bull's."

Henry Maspero (translated from the French by Frank A. Kierman, Jr.): Taoism and Chinese Religion. U. of MA Pr, Amherst, 1981. pp. 1-74.