"The Mythology of Modern China."

popular deities

p.

deity

comparative

97

Sao-c^>in-nian (Old Woman Who Sweepeth Heaven Clear)

[Aztec] besom-goddess Tlazol-teotl

 

Lei-kun (Sire Thunder) -- blue, beaked, winged, talonned

[Etruscan & Assyrian] beaked, talonned gods

98

Tien-mu (Lightning-mother) -- holding 2 mirrors [used for entrapping evil spirits]

[S^into] goddess Ame-no-uzume of the entrapping-mirrors

 

Yu: S^ih (Rain-Master) -- clad in yellow armor, and holding gushing water-cup

"my cup runneth over"

 

Fen-p>o-p>o (Madame Wind) -- seated on tiger, and carrying sack containing winds

wind-containing sack of demi-goddess En-arete (Odusseid- 10:1-76)

99

sedan-riding dog is laughed at [referring to ridicule of dog when he sought to marry woman] in order to procure rainfall, in western Sze-c^uan

[Aztec] Ueue-coyotl

112

Kitchen-god -- white-bearded, seated on armchair [southward-wending, on sedan-chair, carrying ingots of silver -- p. 114]

Kepheus

 

Kitchen-god's wife -- feeding the 6 domestic animals

Kassi-epeia

113

Wood-gathering Youth

Phoiniks

 

Sir Water-carrier

Ogugos (flood-god) the father of Phoinks

118

C^>an-s^en T>u-ti (Long-Life Locality-God)

 
 

Jui-c^>in Fu-jen (Noble Dame of Happiness)

 
 

C^>uan-kun (Lord of the Bed)

Odusseus (built his own bed - O23)

 

C^>uan-mu (Lady of the Bed)

Penelope (spoke of that bed to him -- O23)

119

K>en-san-ku (Latrine-3rd-Dame) = Tzu-ku (Purple Dame) -- goddess of the latrine, of lantern-festival willow-branch (at ladle)

Helike ("willow")

 

Dame Basket

 
 

Dame Broom

[Aztec] Tlazol-teotl of goddess of besom

120

Ts>ai-s^en -- surrounded by children gathering gifts under Cash-Tree

st. Nicolas (Santa Claus) at Christmas-tree

 

C^ao-pao T>ien-tsun (Treasurer-Discoverer Caelestial Venerable)

 

120-1

Na-c^en T>ien-tsun (Treasure-Bringer Caelestial Venerable)

 

121

C^ao-pao S^ih-c^e (Treasure-Discoverer Messenger)

 
 

Li-s^ih Hsien-kuan (Commercial-Profit Immortal)

 
 

Tsen-fu Ts>ai-s^en (Increasing Happiness Wealth-God)

 
 

C^u-pao C^ao-ts>ai (Gathering-Treasure Seeking Wealth)

 
 

Hsu:an-t>an C^ao Yu:an-s^uai (Dark-Mound C^ao Generalissimo)

 
 

Fu-te Ts>ai-s^en (Blessed Wealth-God) = Wu-lu Ts>ai-s^en (5-Roads Wealth-God)

 

125

Hen Ha Erh-c^ian (Sniffler & Snorter Generals)

[Vaidik] Nasatya (nasa 'nose') & Dasra; [Aztec] Yaca-tecuhtli ("nose-lord") & Mix-coatl

127

Mo-li S^ou -- "carried ... the monstrous Striped Sable ... which, unleashed, devoured men." [= mongoose of Ku-vera son of Vis`ravas]

Eurustheus, born by intervention of gale (weasel)

O23 = Odusseid- 23

p. 101 dragon-kings of the 4 Seas

dragon-king: Kuan-__

meaning of name: Releaser of __

__ Sea

te

Virtue

Eastern

li

Goodness

Southern

jun

Favor

Western

tse

Generosity

Northern

p. 102 hillocks of the soul

hillock

place of the soul's __

Hao-li

departure to be born

S^e-s^en

return after death

p. 122 offerings at annual festivals during the 12 months

day & month

festival

offering

1st d. of 1st m.

New Year's Day

piece of cake

2nd m.

C^>in-min (sweeping of tombs)

apricots

     
     

5th d. of 5th m.

 

medlars & plums

[6th m.]

Summer solstice

green beans

7th m.

C^>en-huan

new rice

8th m.

Mid-autumn

Moon-cake

9th d. of 9th m.

 

chrysanthemum-bouquet

10th d. of 10th m.

 

crab

11th m.

Winter solstice

blood-oranges

     

pp. 129-131 mandarin-deities who are identified with northern circumpolar constellations

p.

deity

constellation of __ stars

129

Wenc^>an Ti-c^u:n (of Tzu-t>un in northern Sze-c^uan), who underwent 17 successive lives

6

130

K>uei-hsin standing by his leg on human-headed ao-fish (which was rescuing him drowning)

4

131

C^u-yi ('Red Dress') = red-robed old man

?

pp. 132-135 deities in Wen-miao ('Temple of Literature')

p.

deity

establishment of title / group

132

K>un-tzu Model & Exemplar for 10,000 Generations

[p. 136 duke (A.D. 1); king (A.D. 739); duke (A.D. 1075); emperor (A.D. 1106)

135

72 sages to the left

[p. 135 modern]

 

72 sages to the right

[p. 135 modern]

 

10 wiseacres (S^ih-c^e)

[p. 135 A.D. 1330]

p. 136 Confucius "even kept his rank and title through a special exception when the first Ming emperor abolished all the titles of kings, dukes, and so on, which had been bestowed upon mountains or rivers, gods of the Walls and Ditches, or officials who had been admitted into official worship. But on 4 December 1530, the Shih-tsung emperor stripped him of his status, giving him simply the title Perfect Sage Ancient Master" (C^ih-s^en Hsien-s^ih).

pp. 141-143 farmers' deities

p.

deity

of __

141

Liu the Heavenly Prince

The 5 cereals (wheat, barley, millet, sorghum, rice)

 

Hou-c^i ('Prince Millet')

harvests

 

Huan S^ih

cotton

 

Old Lady Huan

"cotton she is supposed only to have imported from Canton the machine for removing seeds from it" {so, the cotton-gin is older in China than Eli Whitney?}

 

Hu-s^en

hailfall (festival on 1st d. of 7th m.)

 

great-king Pa-c^a (bird-beaked, bird-feeted)

encloser, within gourd, of locusts [p. 142 amulets are distributed against locusts]

142

1st Harvester

 
 

1st Ploughman

 
 

1st Dike-maker

 
 

1st Canal-digger

 
 

1st Builder of Watch-huts

 
 

Spirits of cats

who eat rats

 

Spirits of tigres

who eat feral swine

143

Niu-wan ('Oxen's king')

ox-stables

 

Lin-c^u ('Transcendent Pig')

pigsties

 

Ma-t>ou Nian (' Horse-head Dame')

silkworms, at Mulberry Avenue in Palace (of Jade Emperor)

pp. 147-149 patron-saints of occupational guilds

p.

guild

patron-saint

saint's day

147

tradesmen

God of Wealth

2nd & 16th d.s of m.

 

hotelkeepers

God of Wealth of the 5 Roads

 

148

goldsmiths

Hua-kuan (in chair, with feet on ingot) & Tun-fan S^uo (incarnate planet of metal)

 
 

jade-merchants

Pien Ho (whose limbs were amputated)

 
 

carpenters

Lu Pan (maker of wooden falcon)

 
 

makers of red & black lacquer

the 2 wives, red & black, of Lu Pan

13th d. of 5th m.; 21st d. of 6th m.

 

butchers

Fan K>uai (butcher of hound-meat); C^an Fei (butcher of pork)

 
 

weavers

God of the Shuttle

16th d. of 9th m.

 

gardeners

God of Garden-Trees

 
 

brush-makers

Men T>ien (inventor of writing-brush)

 
 

paper-makers

Ts>ai Lun (inventor of paper)

 
 

tailors

Huan-ti (Yellow Emperor: inventor of caerimonial vestments)

 
 

cobblers

Sun Pin (whose toes were amputated)

 

149

wine-makers

Yi-ti (inventor of wine for Yu: the Great)

 
 

distillers

Tu K>an (discoverer of grain-alcohol)

 
 

barbers

Ancestor Lo (1st of barbers)

13th d. of 7th m.

 

public story-tellers

Ts>an C^ieh (legendary inventor of writing)

 
 

actors

Yu:eh Fei

 
 

prostitutes

Kuan-yin & P>an C^in-lien (whore-widow)

 
 

thieves

Brigand Sun C^ian (in the Water Margins); Brigand C^ih (visited by Confucius)

 

similes for sky-deities

p.

the __ deity

is like unto a __

comparative

153

Golden Raven

thunderbolt

[Bon] raven-god emitting lightning from its mouth

 

Jade Rabbit

chariot-wheel

Iksion bound onto wheel in sky

157

[in constellation Sagittarius:] goddess & god of "the entire allotted span" of life

tou ("bushel")

Hemi-thea & her brother Tenes arrived in a barrel: "linked the hero to his destiny." (CDCM, s.v. Tenes")

CDCM = Pierre Grimal: A Concise Dictionary of Classical Mythology. 1990.

pp. 154-155 Kuan-ti

p.

feature: his __

description

154

stature

9 feet tall

 

beard

2 feet long

 

face

red as jujube

 

eyen

those of phoinix

154-5

son

carrying sigil

155

squire

carrying halberd

pp. 159-161 San-hsin (the 3 stars)

p. 159 __-hsin ('__ Star')

Fu- (Happiness)

Lu- (Dignitaries)

S^ou- (Longevity) [= Canopus, p. 160]

his retinue

p. 159 midgets "as buffoons and comedians"

p. 161 children

 

symbol

p. 160 fluttering bats

p. 161 deer

p. 161 pine-tree

food

 

p. 160 grain

p. 161 peach-fruit

description

   

p. 161 having enormous very high bald head

pp. 160-161 the 3 gods, players of [Chinese] checkers {cf. [Irish] Lugh the chess-player

-- Charles Squire: Celtic Myth and Legend. 1905. (p. 85) http://www.sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/cml/cml11.htm }

p. 165 retinue of ladies-in-waiting for Pi-hsia Yu:an-c^u:n ("Princess of Multi-colored Clouds"), who is daughter of the Grand Emperor of T>ai-s^an ("Eastern Peak"): she is, indeed, the one who bestoweth children and praesideth over their delivery. She is repraesented with a special hair style made-up of three birds with their wings extended.

Lady of Good Vision

holdeth an enormous eye in her hands, and praeserveth children from sore eyen

Lady Who Bringeth Children

holdeth a new-born baby in her hands

Lady Who Promoteth the Beginning of Praegnancy

Princess Who Mysteriously Nourisheth and Strengtheneth & Strengtheneth the Form of the Embryo

Lady Who Speedeth Birth

Princess Who Causeth the Rule to be Followed & Protecteth Infancy

Lady Who Bestoweth Birth

Princeth Who Granteth Joy & Protecteth Delivery

Lady of Smallpox

Princess Who Granteth Tranqullity & Kindness for Infancy

Lady Who Guideth the Ignorant

Princess Who Guideth & Directeth Infancy

Lady of Suckling

Princess Who Giveth Food & Nourisheth Infancy

pp. 177-181 the 10 Hells & their kings [the 1st & 5th have been transposed from the antient sequence, p. 177]

p.

Hell

__-wan ('king')

punishment in it for __

177-8

1st

C^>in-kuan-

[examination of souls at Hsieh-c^in T>ai ('Mirror-of-the-Wicked Terrace')]

178

2nd

C^>u-c^ian-

breach of trust (dishonest go-betweens; faithless trustees; ignorant medics)

 

3rd

Sun-ti-

betrayal of superiors by inferiors (of husbands by wives; of masters by slaves)

178-9

4th

Wu-kuan-

misers (swindlers; counterfeiters; makers of false weights; movers of boundary-markers)

179

5th

Yen-lo-

religious sin (destruction of pious books)

 

6th

Pien-c^>en-

sacrilege (cursing heaven; destroying idols)

179-80

7th

T>ai-s^an c^u:n-

violation of tombs

180

8th

P>in-ten-

lack of filial piety

 

9th

Tu-s^ih-

incendiaries & abortionists

180-1

10th

C^uan-lun- (praeliminaries for re-incarnation)

p. 180 "Broth of Oblivion" praepared by Men-p>o Nian-nian (Dame Men)

p. 181 K>u-c^>u-c^>iao ("Bridge of Sorrow") "over a river of vermilion-colored water"

p. 178 " the City of Those Who Die by Accident, Wang-ssu-ch'eng, from which there is no way out to rebirth. However, they are allowed to come back and be reborn on earth if they have found a substitute. This is why the souls of the drowned seek to drown those who pass over rivers, the souls of the hanged to persuade all those within their reach to hang themselves, and so on."

pp. 183-186 destinations of the multiple souls of each person

p.

The 7 p>o

The 3 hun

183

"remain with the body in the mortuary chamber, which they cannot leave because of the gate gods".

"led away by the henchmen of the god of Walls and Ditches, whose summons warrant serves as a pass with the gate gods, begin their voyage to the underworld".

   

"When the hour of death comes, the god of Walls and Ditches" sendeth 2 emissaries [Niu-t>ou (Go-s`iras 'Ox-head') & Ma-mien (As`va-mukha 'Horse-face')] "to seize the soul and bring it before him."

184

 

Niu-t>ou & Ma-mien "are obliged to get help from the soul of a living man, whose body suddenly falls into a catalepsy while the soul leaves it for some moments".

   

"On the thirty-fifth day after death, the dead person's soul boards the Precious Raft which is the Ship of Benevolence from one world to the other".

185

 

"On the forty-ninth day, the soul definitely passes through the door which separates the terrestrial world from the infernal world." Then it entereth "the first of the Ten Tribunals."

186

 

"On the evening of the hundredth day," there is provided "the house where the dead person must live in the infernal plains where, with other souls, it makes up cities and towns around the palaces of the" netherworld-deities.

p. 183 Niu-t>ou & Ma-mien "are portrayed with a man's body and the head and feet of an animal" {cf. Kentauros}

p. 186 In this world of the living, models of the mansions-to-be of the dead, together with "silver paper representing ingots," are burned in order to convey them to the dead. {cf. the [Hina-yana] sermon by the Buddha alleging that "the [material] world is aflame".}

p. 186 "the soul is not reborn before the twenty-eight months of mourning have passed".

p. 183 "Those who have lived virtuously are reborn on earth as men and women; for them this is a reward, since the modern Chinese, far different from the [Jaina-s and even the Hina-yana Buddhists], who despaired at the idea of an indefinite series of lives and deaths, are happy with the idea."

p. 196 situated on summit of mt. K>un-lun: the 2 wings of the 9-storeyed "jade palace surrounded by a golden wall."

wing of palace

right

left

waterway

River of Kingfishers, flowing through wing

Lake of Pearls, surrounding wing

inhabitants of wing

male Immortals

female Immortals

Henry Maspero (translated from the French by Frank A. Kierman, Jr.): Taoism and Chinese Religion. U. of MA Pr, Amherst, 1981. pp. 75-196.