Daoist Communities & Public Worship

pp. 375-376 the Yellow Turbans


in the east

in the west


supreme chief

p. 375 t>ien-kun c^ian-c^u:n (‘Heaven Lord General’)

p. 376 t>ien-s^ih-c^u:n (‘Heavenly Instructor ["Master"] Lord’)


# of districts, each


24 c^ih (‘metropoles’)

governed by __

Fan (‘Magician’ = General)

c^ih-tou (‘metropolitan’)


inferior ranking


p. 375 kuei-tsu: (‘daimon-soldiers’) = new converts


kuei-min (‘daimon-people’) = laity


kuei-li (‘daimon-officers’) = clergy, who were in 2 grades:-


(1) c^ien-lin (‘commander of the perverse’ {cf. deacon}) who said prayers for the sick


p. 376 (2) c^i-c^iu (‘libationer’, making "libations of wine" {cf. priest taking wine as communion})

p. 377 "Prisons, abolished for ordinary crimes, had been reestablished by Chang Hsiu for the sick; they were called Recusion Houses …, and the sick were sent there to reflect on their sins."

p. 378 achievement in Embryonic Respiration


masculine title

feminine title


Tao-nan (‘Sons of the Way’)

Tao-nu: (‘Daughters of the Way’)

higher rank

Nan-kuan (‘Man Wearing the Cap’)

Nu:-kuan (‘Woman Wearing the Cap’)

yet-higher rank

Tao-fu (‘Way-Father’)

Tao-mu (‘Way-Mother’)

p. 377 This practice of Embryonic Respiration was established by C^an Lu [who had "killed and replaced" (p. 375) his brother C^an C^ieh], who in this was[, according to Maspero,] "only imitating the eastern churches".

p. 380 semi-annual festivals in the regulations of the 3 C^an, according to the Erh-c^iao Lun (‘Dissertation on the 2 Religions’) by Tao-an, in Kuan Hun-min C^i, cap. 8, 140c; cf. Hsiao-tao Lun 149a

at aequinoctes

at solstices

offerings to Kitchen-god & to Earth-god

Sacrifices to the dead

"for the "contracts with the Earth God" … the believer purchased a piece of land from the Earth God for his tomb".

pp. 380-387 the 6 Lin-pao c^ai (‘Fasts of the Sacred Jewel’)


__ C^ai (‘festival ["fast"] of the __)

its ritual


San-kuan (‘3 Agents’)

3 copies of names of the sick were deposited:- 1 each on: mountain-top, in the earth, and in water


T>i-t>an (‘Mud [&] Soot’)

face is smeared with soot; persons are linked together; hair is dishevelled and in is kept in mouth; forehead is smeared with soot {cf. Ash Wednesday} [see also pp. 384-5]


C^in-lu (‘Golden Talisman’)

3 concentric enclosures, respectively 45, 33, & 24 feet to a side, each raised 2 feet highest than the praeceding


Huan-lu (‘Yellow Talisman’)

one enclosure, 24 feet to a side


Ho-c^>i (‘Union of the Breaths’)

obscoene prayer in the Huan-s^u (‘Yellow Writing’), which (p. 386, fn. 32) "allegedly goes back to the Yellow Turbans."


the 3 Majesties


{with this Mud-Soot penance cf. "often he rolls around in mire nude, confessing [exagoreuei]" (DE 168D7 – DG, p. 150, fn. 29)}

DE = Ploutarkhos : De Superstitione.

DG = Richard J. Bautch : Developments in Genre. Brill, 2003.

p. 388 -- 21 kinds of different Fasts are counted in the San-tun Fen-tao-ke, in YCCC, cap. 37, 10a

p. 389 transfiguration of the souls of the dead

by means of __

the souls of the dead __

"grasping the Principle of the life of Spontaneity"

"are raised to the Southern Palace" ("Palace of the Southern Summit")

"broth of liquid fire"

"the material of their phantoms is refined"

the Caelestial Venerable of the Beginning creating "a body for them":

this goeth up to the Palace of Aeternal Life

p. 389 burial, with a corpse, of silk with "written characters" on it; and (p. 390) with symbolic objects -- according to the Hsiao-tao Lun, 52, 146a

p. 389 __ of silk

for __

p. 390 symbolic object

a roll

The Son of Heaven


10 feet

kings & dignitaries

dragon-effigy made of 5 ounces of gold

5 feet


of iron and 5 5-colored stones

p. 390 "When food has been offered at the sanctuary (of the dead person's tablet) for thirty-two years, he comes back into his form and is reborn."

pp. 391-395 evolution of conception of the gods


p. 395, fn. 53 Kuo-S^ih ('State-Instructor')

p. 391 Yellow Turbans

pp. 391-2, fn. 48 Lin-pao ('Sacred Jewel')


Liu Hsin

C^an Tao-lin

Lu Hsiu-c^in

date of founder

Wan-man -- a little before beginning of Ch.E.

[eastern] Han

late in 5th century Ch.E.


Yin Hsi (= Wen-s^ih)

C^an Lu

Sun Wen-min -- early 6th century Ch.E.

p. 395, fn. 53 The Wen-s^ih C^uan ("Wen S^ih Biography"), also called Wu-s^an C^en-jen Kuan-lin Nei-c^uan ("Without-Superior Perfect-Man Governor-of-the-Passes Esoteric-Biography"), "contained a detailed account of Yin Hsi's journey to the West, following Lao-tzu. This work was attributed to the Master of the Valley of Ghosts," Kuei-ku Hsien-s^en.

p. 395 the 13 successive existences of Lao-tzu -- list, with variants, in:-- Hua-hu C^in ("Books of the Conversion of the Barbarians") (quoted in:- San-tun C^u-nan [= TT 782], cap. 9, 6b); as well as in the Kao-s^an Lao-tzu Pen-c^i and in the Hsu:an-c^un C^i, quoted together in the Yi-c^>ieh Tao-c^in Yin-yi ("Glossary of All the Taoist Books" = TT 760) 9a-b.

p. 400 Amongst the curiosities in the palace of the T>ien-s^ih ('Caelestial Master') at the foot of mt. T>ien-mu, in Kian-si province, is "a long row of jars full of captive demons, whom he had disarmed and put into bottles so as to prevent them from committing new misdeeds". {cf. <arabi^ reputed imprisonment of Jnun in bottles, a magical technique still practiced in Malaya -- did it come into vogue among the Muslim sorcerers from the examplary of Daoists resident in Malaya?}

Henry Maspero (translated from the French by Frank A. Kierman, Jr.): Taoism and Chinese Religion. U of MA Pr, Amherst, 1981. pp. 373-399