tham khwan (of the Thai)

p. 17 khwan

"Between earthly existences, the tiny khwan lives in a tree under the care of a female spirit, Mae Syy [Mother who Buys] ...

Since there is more food during a human existence, the khwan is eager to be reborn..."

various soul-entities

p.

term and its meaning

17

khwan ‘guardian spirit’

18

vinyan (< [Pali] vin~n~ana < [Samskr.ta] vijn~ana) ‘consciousness’

 

citta ‘thought’

19

chai ‘heart/mind’ = [in legends] vulnerability which a monster may keep "hidden somewhere" in duan (‘round’ [sphaerical?]) form – in that case, the monster will die only when it "is discovered in its hidden place and crushed"

 

chivita (< [Pali] jivita) ‘fate, destiny’

20

ming ‘centre’

 

chitaphud ‘shadow/reflection’-- [in tales] "leaving the sleeper or the dying" in the form of an insect (also spelled /ceedtaphuud/ : different from /cidkhuporta/ ‘[Samskr.ta] Citra-gupta, record-keeper at court of Yama’ - p. 130, n. 11) ([Thai] chitaphud = [Khmer] cato phud (< [Skt.] catur bhuta ‘4 elements’ – p. 136, n. 29)

 

nidsaj (< [Pali] nidsan~j ‘to the attached to’) ‘ingrained character’

 

phrom likhid ‘lines of destiny, as established by Brahma

 

phi ‘astral bodies of the living, ghosts of the dead (as, "who used to haunt the Chinese graveyard")’ (aequated with [Pali] Peta < [Samskr.ta] Preta – p. 131, n. 13)

p. 29 crematory urn kept in house

"The charred bones of the dead were, after cremation, put into gold or silver urns (according to wealth) and kept in the house near a Buddha image. The poor ... in small earthen pots ... at home".

p. 32 phi; winyan

"a person is born through the making of the phi. The phi shapes some clay ... then puts the figure into the womb of a woman ...

{cf. Tvastr. & [Kemetian] PTH. the potter-god}

the winyan is one of the thirty-two bodily parts. It lives in the heart and roams about in sleep, moving in and out of the uterus and dividing into four chetaphud after death."

["in and out of the uterus" for apparition to its mother-to-be ?]

pp. 32-33 the 4 minor winyan : after the death of their owner they become the 4 phi

minor winyan

in residing-place in the body

Im

right thumb-nail

Jan

left thumb-nail

Phan

right big toe

Tako

left big toe

etymology of /khwan/

p. 33 [antient Chinese] ghwun – cf. [Thai] ghwan ‘smoke’

p. 33 the sign for /hun/ is composed of 2 characters : ‘goblin’ & ‘vapor, cloud’ [‘cloud’ & ‘spirits’ (p. 37)]

p. 135, n. 23 [modern Mandarin] hun

[Dioi] hon

[Mak & Sui] kwan

[Lung-chow Tai & Tai in Nan-chao] khwan

terms for ‘soul’ in languages other than Thai

p.

type of soul

34 with 36

[Burmese] leik-pya ‘butterfly spirit’

36

[Cambodian] pralang

37

[Chinese] p>ai (modern pronunciation) = p>o (classical pronunciation) : "after death the p’o stays close to the corpse" = [Thai] phi

p. 128, n. 1 list of the 32 residing-places in body of the 2 khwan-s, according to the [Pali] Khuddaka-patha (< [Samskr.ta] Ks.udraka-)

hair of head

hair of body

nails

teeth

skin

muscles

sinews

bones

marrow

kidneys

heart

liver

membranes

spleen

lungs

intestines

entrails

stomach

faeces

bile

digestive juice

pus

blood

sweat

fat

tears

lymph

saliva

snot

synovial fluid

urine

brains

p. 129, n. 1 repraesentation of body-parts in absentee burials (in India, not Siam)

substance

body-part

coconut

head

32 pomegranate-seeds

teeth

2 shells

ears

arsenic

breath

yellow pigment

bile

sea-foam

phlegm

honey

blood

bristle of hog

hair

barley-dough

flesh

p. 129, n. 4 khwan of trees

type of tree

its nature & gendre

khwan of trees used for construction of houses or of boats or carts

nang mai (female)

khwan of trees not used for construction [because sacred?] (e.g., pipal & banyan trees)

rukkha devata (male)

p. 136, n. 29 [Khmer] the 29 pralin (also pronounced /pralang/) & the 4 cato phut

pralin

location in body

10 great ones, in pairs

2 ears

2 eyen

2 nostrils

mouth, navel, anus, urethra

4 vinan (< [Skt.] vijn~ana ‘consciousness’

around nostrils & mouth

4 smadei (< [Skt.] smr.ti ‘remembrance’)

located nigh eyen & ears

1 ahar (< [Skt.] a-hara) [‘fetch’ : ahr. ‘to fetch’])

located nigh organ of digestion

p. 62 the 9 gems [with color, planet, & day (p. 63)]

English

Thai

Samskr.ta

its color

its planet

__day

diamond

phet

vajra

silver-bluish

Venus

Fri

ruby

thab-thim

 

bright red

sun

Sun

emerald

morakot

marakat.a

green

Mercury

Wednes

topaz

busrakham

phusya-raga

yellow

Ketu

 

garnet

komen

go-meda

 

Rahu

 

sapphire

nin

nila-ratna

dark blue

Saturn

Satur

moonstone

mukda

mukta

silver

moon

Mon

hyacinth

phethai

 

light red

Mars

Tues

cat’s eye

phaithus

vaid.urya

variegated

Jupiter

Thurs

pp. 119-120 [glossary, not in correct native sequence, of] ghosts of the dead & astral bodies of the living

p.

ghost

119

chao phi – spirit-lord : ghost of noble died in accident as spirit of locality

 

p[r]eta – hungry ghost : "may whistle at night"

 

phi am – "sits on the chest or the liver of sleepers."

 

phi chamob – "ghost who haunts where a woman died in the jungle."

 

phi ha -- "spirit of a woman who died in childbirth."

 

phi krahan – "appears as a man with feathers and tail like a bird." (in the north and the northeast this spirit is called "phi hoan")

119-20

phi krasy – "inside a with and leaves her during sleep by her mouth. This phi has ... long bluish tail. ... Krasy witches have a sleepy appearance during the day. Their eyes don’t blink and they never look anybody in the face. Also, they don’t cast any reflection into a mirror. {This may be true during a dream.} Before krasy witches die, they have to find somebody who inherits the krasy".

120

phi kuman – "spirit of an infant who died before or shortly after birth." "The infant’s corpse has to be put into a pot which is closed with leaves ... on which charms have been written. The pot in then set afloat" on a river.{cf. Norse (et al.) setting adrift (on a boat) of corpses of the dead; Chinese "burial-writs"; and Hindu placing of bones of cremated corpses into a pot, to be deposited in a sacred river.}

 

phi lok [loka ‘locality’] – "haunts at certain places."

 

phi pa – "spirit of someone who has died away from home."

 

phi phrai – spirit of a woman’s corpse from which magical substance hath been extracted by sorcerer : "essences are made which drive men mad and attract women."

 

phi phut [bhuta] = phi phrai

 

phi tai ha – "spirit of a woman who has died of malaria."

 

phi tai hon – "a headless ghost of one who has died a violent death" {in Borneo, headless ghosts are those of headhunting-victims}

 

phi tai than krom = phi ha

 

phi thuk khun – "substance of a living person which has be sent out every week so that no harm will come to its owner." {cf. Siberian "external soul"}

 

phi yad – "dead kin."

pp. 120-121 [glossary, not in correct native sequence, of] spirits who exist on their own account (nature-spirits)

p.

nature-spirit

120

chao khao – Lord of the Mountain

 

chao thi – Lord of the Place

 

chao thun – Lord of the Open Land

 

mai ja nan – Boat-Mother

 

mae thorani – Mother Earth

 

phi ca kla – "spirit in the shape of a jungle cat."

 

phi khamod – "spirit in the shape of a red star {cf. [Yucatec god] C^ak E>k ‘red star’} (will o’ the wisp) who misleads wanderers."

 

phi kin hoi – "spirit in the shape of a vampire bat." { cf. Kic^e` god (in Popol Vuh) Kama Zo>ts ‘deadly bat’}

 

phi kon koi – "one-legged spirit." {cf. Kic^e` (in Popol Vuh) one-legged god}

 

phi lan kluan – "spirit through whose body one can see." [transparent]

121

phi lin lom – "windborn monkey spirit." {according to the C^epan of Nepal, the god Vayu (‘Wind’) hath "the form of a monkey with a particularly long nose and large belly." (Tunsuriban, p. 163)}

 

phi mahesak [Maha-s`akra = Maha-indra] (in the northeast) – spirit of great power

 

phi nan tani – "female tree (except teakwood) spirit who may fill almsbowls of wandering monks."

 

phi pa – forest-spirit. "Hunters may leave a piece of ... a killed animal, ... to show respect to this spirit."

 

phi phun tai – "spirit in the shape of a shooting star."

 

phi poan khan – "spirit in the shape of a black monkey who may suck the big tow of somebody sleeping in the jungle ... near a salt lick."

 

phi ryan – "guardian spirit who takes residence in a spirit house."

 

phi sum – "fish-trap ghost."

 

phra phum – "ancestor spirit or former owner of the land."

 

phrai nam – "spirit of the water."

 

thewada cuti – "god who became a mortal rising from the tail of a green snake."

Ruth-Inge Heinze: Tham Khwan : How to Contain the Essence of Life. Singapore U. Pr, 1982.