West African religions

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Vodun

Table, after p. 355 trance-possessions by, and offerings to, deities

Loa

type of possession

offering

cosmic principle

Elegbara

brutality

chicken

crossroads

Ge'de'

clownish

goat

chthonic

Zaka = Yalo'de

shy

cassava

telluric

Dan = Gbe^ / Gbade`

serpentine

chicken

uranic

Agbe^

piscine

ram dyed blue

marine

Ogun

authoritarian

red rooster

fire

+Ezuli = +Os^un

seductive

chicken

female

Leslie Ge'rald Desmangles: God in Haitian Vodun. PhD diss, Temple U, 1976.

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Makumba

p. 41 clothing worn by person possessed by deities

Ogum

blue satin cape; victory helmet

Omulu`

straw mask; necklaces of shells; mace covered with braided straw

p. 42 speech by person possessed by deities

Xango^

pride

Oxala`

wise and majestic

Oxum

coquettish

p. 43 attributes of person possessed by deities

Exu`

red and black satin

Ogum

mirror

p. 50 symbols of deities

Ogum

sword

Oxossi

arrow

Xango^

ax

Exu`

trident

p. 51 rhythms of deities

Oxala`

Bravun

Xango^

Aluja`

Oxossi

Agere^

p. 53 sequence for summoning deities

1st

Exu`

threshholds & doors

2nd

Ogum

"opener of the path" [cf. WP_W3.wt]

p. 57 color of beads in kele^ (necklace) worn by human devotees of deities

Xango^

red and white

Iemanja`

transparent

Ogum

yellow

Oxossi

green

p. 66 increasingly forceful ways of making deity depart out of entranced person

singing songs "in reverse order"

blowing pipe-smoke into medium's face

drinking of water by medium

p. 99 aspects of deities

Oxala`

3

Xango^

12

Oxum

16

Omulu`

14

varieties of ori-xa` ("head-leader")

p.

ori-xa`

domain

metal, etc.

color

other

104

Oxala`

sky

aluminum & "white gold" (platinum)

white

white pigeon, dove

105

+Iemanja`

salt water

silver

blue

pearls

107

Xango^

fire

copper

red-&-white

sports; ax or cudgel

109

+Oxum

fresh waters: lakes & streams

gold

yellow

"waterfall"

110

Ogum

road

iron

blue

"traveling up and down the world"

112

+Iansa~

storm, tempest, rain

"armed and helmeted and ready to combat" [cf. Athene]

red

"She carries off the souls of the dead on her wings."

113

Omulu`

sun; cemeteries

straw

black-&-white

disease, epidemic

114

Oxossi

wild animals

feathers

green

hunter

149

Ossa~e

wild herbs

[coins; leaves for dancing upon, 150]

 

[exact moment & exact place, 153]

192

Exu`

intersections

iron

black

["erect penis", 204; jokester, 205; clown, 211]

201

+Pombagira (wife of Exu`)

[T-shaped intersections, p. 210]

wearing "transparent veils"

 

["undo" a praegnancy, 207]

 

Elegbara

 

rusted iron

   

p. 107 the 12 oba` ("ministers") of Xango^

6 on his right

6 on his left

Abiedan

Are`

Onikoyi

Otum

Aresba

Nikoni

Ohan-Xegum

Eko

Tela

Kaba`

Olagba`

Ossi-Onikoyi

p. 161 in order to overcome hostile forces

breathe with eyen closed, tightening abdominal muscles on every inhalation

with eyen shut, hold breath with tongue resting on upper palate

Serge Bramly: Macumba. St. Martin's Pr, 1977.

[Properly, however, the name "makumba" may be a variant of "makombe" (LI, p. 39) / "mokomba`" (LI, p. 197), the crocodile-god of Abakpa`.

LI = David H. Brown: The Light Inside. Smithsonian Books, Washington, 2003.]

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Cuban Santeri`a

p. 362 (Appendix 5) the Saintly Analogue

oris^a

principle

#

color

food

dance-posture

emblem

Agayu

fatherhood

 

green, red, & yellow

fish

long paces

os^e`

Babalu` Aye`

illness

17

black or light-blue

tobacco

lame

crutches

S^ango

machismo

4 or 6

red & white

pig, bull

acrobatics

os^e`

Elegba

way-opener

3

red & black

opossum

buffoonery

hooked staff

Ibeyi

children

     

children's play

twins

Inle

medicine

 

green

 

fishing

leaves

Obatala

peace

8

white

nanny-goats

calm

fly-whisk

Os^osi

hunt

 

lavender & black; blue & orange

guinea-hens

hunting-calls

bow & arrow

Os^un

eros

5

yellow

sheep

coquette

fan, peacock feather

Ogun

iron

7

green & black

hounds

bellicose

iron

Olokun

profundity

 

blue & white

spiced rum

seas

shell

Orula

wisdom

16

green & yellow

chicken

 

Ifa

Osain

herbs

   

rodents

[not dance]

leaves

Oya

death

9

maroon or brown

only fowl

Bacchanal

lance

Yemaya

maternity

7

blue & white

turtle

raging seas

fan, shell

p. 365 (Appendix 7) the Santeri`a Hierarchy, in declining order

1

persons who have receive Olofi

2

persons who have receive ifa, cuanaldo

3

oluo-s

4

balalao-s

5

santeros con pinaldo

6

santeros

7

persons who have received the hand of Orula

8

persons who have received the "Warriors"

9

persons who have received collares

10

persons who have received nis^e osain

Joseph M. Murphy: Ritual Systems in Cuban Santeria. PhD diss, Temple U, 1981.

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Afro-Cuban Religions

Lucumi` saints

p.

deity

family / relatives

abode

traits

animal

plant

color

41

Elegba`

one of trio, with Oggu`n & Oc^osi

wooden doll

crossroads

   

red & black beads (p. 43)

44

Oc^osi

son of Yemaya` & brother of Inle

gaol

bow-&-arrow

"tiger" (leopard)

 

dark-lilac & green

44

Oggu`n

brother competing with C^ango`

 

iron

   

red & green beads (p. 46)

46

Oru`[mi]la [doth not mount]

assistant of Olofi (p. 47)

 

divining-tray

   

green & yellow (p. 47)

47

C^ango` (believers arise from seats)

grandson of Aggayu` & son of Orungan & of Yemaya` (p. 48)

mambo`-wand for exocorcizing (p. 158, n. 23);

bata`-drums, thunder & lightning; also (p. 158, n. 24) ac^ere`-rattle

horses (p. 48)

royal-palm (p. 48)

red & white (p. 48)

50

+Yemaya`

commited incest with her own son C^ango` (p. 52)

 

fans (p. 52)

fishes (p. 48)

 

dappled (= foam) blue

50

Olokun (is seen only in dreams)

 

bottom of sea

     

blue-&-white-striped mask

52

Obbatala`

son of Olofi (p. 54)

"high place" (p. 54)

(p. 54) aggogo` (handbell)

dove

coconut (p. 54)

white (p. 54)

52

Oddu`a

   

axis

deer, elephant (p. 54)

   

55

+Oya`

sister of Yemaya`, Oc^u`n & Oba

gate of cemetery

wind; copper; hurricane

   

red with black-&-white streaks

56

+Oc^u`n

praegnant (p. 58) adultress with Orula (p. 58)

soup-tureen (p. 57)

lamp (p. 58)

peafowl (p. 57)

pumpkin (p. 58)

yellow (p. 57)

57

+Iyammu

 

sandy river-bottom

comb

jellyfish

algae

 

57

+Kole`

 

roofs, cornices

embroidering, sewing

converseth with turkey-buzzard

   

57

+Panc^a`gara = prostitute

"to snatch other women's men" with "erotic dances"

 

gold & honey

     

58

Babalu` Aye`

from the Aja` or Arara`

 

besom made of sheabutter-palm twigs

the hounds Taewo & Kainde; also (p. 60) mosquitoes & flies

(p. 29) bitter-broom (p. 158, n. 29: escoba amarga)

white-streaked blue beads (p. 60)

63

+Oba [doth not mount, p. 65]

sister of Oc^u`n & Oya` (p. 65)

 

ears amputated

 

flamboyant-tree (p. 65)

 

65

Oko [doth not mount]

 

rooftops

agriculture

talketh to eagles & vultures

   

65

Nana` Buruku`

of Ewe origin

 

the elderly

     

65

Ibbeyi

twin-sons of C^ango`

 

children

   

red & white

65

Inle

   

coral & jet

     

65

Aggayu` Sola`

father of C^ango`

 

globe

     

66

+Yegba`

virgin: "skeleton of a girl"

       

pastels

66

Osai`n

hath "neither father nor mother"

suspended from lintel

1-eyed, 1-armed

 

bottlegourd

 

parallelisms

p. 50 "Anyone who catches a glimpse of him [Olokun] will immediately die."

None can look on the face of >lohi^m and live.

Olokun is "chained to the bottom of the sea."

>lohi^m "set the foundation of his dwelling in the waters."

   

p. 59 Babalu` Aye` weareth "a coat made of jute with scraps of purple cloth."

the many-colored coat of Yo^sep was torn into scraps.

p. 60 "All grains belong to him [Babalu` Aye`] and ... he is supposed to advise"

Yo^sep advised to lay in a storage of grain.

   

p. 66 Osai`n hath "neither father nor mother"

Melki^-s.edeq had "neither father nor mother"

mpungu-s (deities) of regla Congo

pp.

deity

atributes

126

Tiembla Tierra (Trembler Earth)

earthquake

 

Khuyu (Lucero Mundo "Light of the World")

moon

 

Sar/labanda

n~oca (maja`-snake)

127

Munalungo (Siete Rayos "7 Rays")

fire

128

+Baluande (Siete Sayas "7 Skirts")

 
 

Brazo Fuerte (Armstrong)

carrieth globe

 

Pandilanga / Mpungo

 

129

+C^ola Awengbe

freshwater, streams

 

Tata Pansu`a (Pata e` Llaga "Ulcerous Leg")

 
 

Yaya Kengbe (Centella "Lightning")

 
 

Lufo Kuyo

get out of jail

 

Buta`n Keye

faith-healer

 

Kisimba

 
 

+Mama Canata

 
 

Ntala & Nsamba

twins

 

Endoqui

 

131

Mari`a Batalla (Mary Battle)

 
 

Paso Fuerte (Pace Strong)

 
 

Buey Suelto (Ox Wild)

 
 

Mariata Congo

 
 

Ma Fortuna (Mother Fortune)

 
 

Ma Rosario (Mother Rosary)

 
 

Zapatico Malaco` (Little-Shoe ...)

 
 

Tengue Malo (... Bad)

 
 

Mariquilla (Little Mary)

 
 

Infierno Mundo Camposanto (Hell World Cemetery)

 
 

Infierno Barre Escoba (Hell Sweeper)

 
 

Monte Oscuro (Forest Obscure)

 
 

Palo Prieto (Rod Black)

 
 

Tormenta / Virao Endoqui (Whirlwind ...)

 
 

Saca Empen~o (Debt Redeemer)

 
 

Rabo e Nube

 
 

Luna Nueva (Moon New)

 

Miguel Barnet (tr. from the Spanish by Christine Renata Ayorinde): Afro-Cuban Religions. Markus Wiener Publ., Princeton, 2001.

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Santeri`a

pp. 370-371 oris^a-s

oris^a

colors

container

contents

Elegba`

black-&-red

beaded lidded gourd

cement head

Ogu`n

green-&-black

iron cooking-vessel with 3 legs

seven iron tools; anvil

Os^osi

 

terracotta dish

shields, machetes, trident, deer-antlers

Odudu`wa

 

polished white metal box

helpers: Bromu`, Broncia`

Olokun

 

tall lidded pot

 

Oko

 

terracotta roof-tile

2 coconuts

Babalu` Aye`

 

terracotta lidden pot perforated with holes

dance-wand of royalpalm-shoots

O`sun

   

"cup on a stem" (goblet), topped by rooster, hung with bells

Osain

 

lidded gourd

"figure with one eye, one arm, and one leg"

Obatala`

white

white porcelain sopera

white horsetail fly-whisk

+Oya`

9 colors

brownish (or pink) sopera

black oxtail fly-whisk

+Os^u`n

 

yellow sopera

gold fan

+Yemaya`

 

blue sopera

blue fan

S^ango`

red-&-white

cedar vessel

ax

Orunmila

yellow-&-green

wooden vessel which is divided into quadrants

irofa` (tapper)

David H. Brown: Santeri`a Enthroned. U. of Chicago pr, 2003.

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