Wu Yun, cap. 2 & 4

pp. 107-113 various Confucianist advocates for Daoism

p. 107

"Examples of Mid-Tang literati ... who showed great interest in Daoism, and in most cases also wrote about the relation between Confucianism and Daoism, include Wu Yun’s contemporaries Yuan Jie ... (719-772) and Li Guan ... (c. 766-c. 794), and, one generation younger, Liu Zongyuan, Yan Zhenqing and Quan Deyu. David McMullen [1973, p. 312] has commented on the Daoist proclivity of yuan Jie, ... inspired by a family tradition of reverence for the Huang-Lao teachings."

p. 108

"Yan Zhenqing ("Perfected Minister" Yan) has left ... memorial inscription, thanks to which the activities of part of the Daoist community of Yan’s day have been preserved ... . ... Yan Zhenqing’s friend, the ... poet Jiaoran, describes Yan as belonging within the current of Daoism ... . ... by Late Tang times already, Yan Zhenqing had been given a place in Daoist hagiography. [Tai-pin Guan-ji 32.205-208; Li-s^i Z^en-xian Ti-dao Ton-jian (= DZ 296) 32.5b-7a] ...

p. 109

"Quan Deyu was highly conversant with Daoism ..., and counted numerous ... Daoist priests among his acquaintances. [McMullen 1988, p. 107] Quan’s views ... are expressed concisely in a very interesting poem [Quan Tan S^i 320.3610] titled ‘Observing gengshen together with a Daoist’ ... . The poem describes ... keeping watch during the gengshen night, a time when common mortals felt particularly vulnerable, as some of their dreaded corporeal deities ascended to heaven in order to report ... . Besides being rife with images from the fourth Zhuangzi chapter, such as ... the "room where the empty and bright are engendered" (xushi shengbai ...), it also focuses on certain details of the Daoist adept’s ritual actions, who "claps his teeth so as to gather together the divinities"(kouchi ji shenling ...)."


"Yet another salient example ..., this time of the end of the Tang, is that of Lu Xisheng ... (died ca. 905). Lu ...

p. 110

is best known for his commentary to the Daode jing, the 4-juan Daode zhenjing zhuan ... (D 685). ... according to Lu, ... Laozi worked on substance (zhi ...). ... substance leads to recovery of one’s fundamental nature (fuxing ..., the subject of Li Ao’s famous treatise). ... Laozi "relied on the substance of the three thearchs," ... : true sages are only moved to undertake action out of sympathy for the populations ... . ... Lu Xisheng remarks that, as substance is highly subtle, its profundities (as expressed in the Daode jing) are hard to understand. ... Lu ... holds ... that Laozi’s basic tenets are ... one a par with heroes of antiquity such as Fuxi ..., the Yellow Emperor ..., Yao ..., Shun ... .

p. 111

... Ban Gu ... (32-92) is criticized for mot having followed in the footsteps of ... Sima Tan ..., Qian’s father, who had ranked Daoism first among the philosophical schools. ["Ge Hong had done the same, cf. Baopuzi .. 10.184." (fn. 22)]

... his contemporary Luo Yin ... produced the most systematic synthesis of Daoism and Confucianism in Tang China : the Liangtong shu ... or ‘Book on the Identity of the Two.’ " ["The work is also present in the Daozang, under the title Taiping liangtong shu ... (D 135)."" (fn. 23)]

McMullen 1973 = David McMullen : "Historical and Literary theory in the Mid-Eighth Century". In :- A. F. Wright & D. Twichett (eds.) : Perspectives on the T’ang. Yale U Pr, 1973. pp. 307-342

McMullen 1988 = David mcMullen : State and Scholars in T’ang China. Cambridge U Pr, 1988.

p. 114 qualities of heaven-&-earth, according to Du Guan-tin (DZ 711, Xu 2a)

utmost __

tallieth with__ of heaven-and-earth








integrity ["tolerance", according to Wu Yun’s Xuan-gan 9]


discriminating powers



pp. 115-116 passage in Xuan-gan 9 [quoted in the Northern Son dynasty Dao-de Z^en-jin Qu-s^an Ji (= DZ 718) 6.5b (fn. 33)]

p. 115

p. 116 (citing Zon-xuan Xian-s^en Xuan-gan 7a-8b)

the ruler of men taketh __

as his __

rulers of men who used these qualities

Way [Dao]


the 3 Sovereigns

Virtue [De]


the 5 Emperors

humanity and righteousness

carriage and robes

the 3 Kings

propriety and knowledge

caerimonial cap

the 5 Tyrants

pp. 120-121 ghost poetry

p. 120

"In the thirteenth year of the Dali era (778), ... two poems mysteriously appeared on one of the stone walls ... on Tiger Hill (Huqiu shan ...). ... This is how the two poems read : ...

Though I once did know the pleasures of the living,

My souls are denied any possibility of return. ...

p. 121

Bodies transform into souls that wander in the void."


"In the funeral ode Li Daocheng composed after reading these poems, he expressed his wish to be informed about the identity of the mysterious poet, and asked when he had lived ... . A few days later, Li Daocheng’s query was answered in a short poem that, like the first pair, mysteriously appeared on the stone wall".

pp. 119-120, fn. 44 citation of (article by author) :- Jan de Meyer : "From Beyond the Grave : Remarks on the Poetical Activities of Tang Dynasty Ghosts". In :- Angela Schottenhammer (ed.) : Auf den Spuren des Jenseits : Chinesische Grabkulture ... . Frankfurt : Peter Lang, 2003. pp. 141-166

pp. 129-142 Si Huan-c^un Fu ("Rhapsody on Pondering the Return to Purity")

p. 129

"The mysterious vogue of the age of Great Plainness,

fn. 71 "In the first Liezi chapter, taisu ... (‘Great Plainness’) is explained as the age when matter or substance first formed."


Gradually submerged at the time of Xi and Xuan; ...

fn. 72 "Fuxi and Xuanyuan ... (alias Huangdi, the Yellow Emperor)."

p. 130

It had not been destroyed at the time of Tang and Yu. ...

fn. 74 "Yao (Taotang ...) and Shun (Youyu ...)."


Mysterious Prime went to

fn. 76 "Xuanyuan ... is short for Taishang xuanyuan huangdi, Laozi’s honorific title."


the "shifting sands,"

fn. 77 "The "shifting sands" ... indicate the western regions."


Bequeathing Way and Power to the Keeper of the Pass ... . ...

fn. 78 "Yin Xi ..., also known as Guan Yin ... (Yin of the Pass)".

p. 131

Wuwei’s path was chosen."


p. 140

"The Most High will issue a decree,

Summoning the myriad spiritual beings. ...

fn. 123 "Taishang ... ."


The five emperors will unite their talismans,

fn. 124 the 5 emperors of the color-directions


The three officers will attack jointly.

fn. 125 "The officers of heaven, earth and water. They also occur in the fifth of Wu Yun’s Youxian shi."

p. 141

He will then

Command the celestial generals,

To gather the celestial soldiers,

To beat the celestial drums,

fn. 126 "In Shangqing texts, "beating the celestial drums" (da tiangu ...) refers to clapping the teeth, a method for keeping at a distance ... a ... malignant ghost".


And hold up the celestial banners;

They will wield their golden xiang,

fn. 127 "The xiang ... consisted of a combination of a rod with hooks on both extremities and a small buckler."


And fling their fiery bells,

Employ flashes of lightning,

and stir up swift thunderclaps;

They will emerge from brightness, ...

fn. 128 "fiery bells ..." : "Formed of the yang essence of the nine stars of the Northern Dipper, they assisted in driving out the six demonic heavens and replace them with the three heavens."


Straighten the "great stairway,"

fn. 129 "Taijie ..., the "great stairway," is the collective designation of three stars ... known as santai ..., the "three platforms," ... the heavenly counterpart of the sangong ... (the Three Dukes ...) ... . Cf. Jin shu, 11.293."


And sweep away the comet."

fn. 130 "Chancheng ... (literally : comet)"

p. 142

"Credit will be given to Upper Clarity. ...

I shall then drum on my belly and pound the earth ...,

fn. 133 "The first ... is derived from Zhuangzi 9, ‘Horses’ hoofs’, Guo Qingfan, Zhuangzi jishi 9.341. The second is found in Huangfu Mi’s Diwang shiji ..., as quoted in Yiwen leiju, 11.213-214."


I shall sing of Baihuang, Lilian and Dating".

fn. 134 "in Zhuangzi 10 (‘Rifling trunks’) ... the three were said to have belonged to the age of perfect virtue; Chen shu ... 6.114, Bei shi ... 11.402".

p. 177 instances of hypothetic dialogues between a recluse and a young lord

p. 177


fn. 2

fn. 3


Wu Yun

Ge Hon

Cai Yon


Yi-ren Fu (‘Rhapsody on the Recluse’)

chapter Jia-dun (‘In praise of reclusion’) of Bao-pu-zi

S^i Hui (‘Dispelling Censure’)


Z^en-yin Xian-s^en (‘Genuine-Reclusion Master’)

Huai-bin Xian-s^en (‘Bosom-Pure-as-Ice Master’)

Hua-dian Hu-lao (‘Hoary-Head Very-Old’)

young lord

Wan-s^i Gon-zi (‘Cynical Young-Lord’)

Fu-s^i Gon-zi (‘On-His-Way-to-Power Young-Lord’)

Wu-s^i Gon-zi (‘Seek-Success Young-Lord’)

pp. 186-191 Yi-ren Fu ("Rhapsody on the Recluse")

p. 186

"Hongya and

fn. 49 " ‘Master Cast Cliff’ (Hongya xiansheng ...) ... resided on Hua shan, he was connected to Qingcheng shan ... in Sichuan by Tao Hongjing ... . ... According to ... the Qing dynasty Jiangxi tongzhi ..., 178.1a-b, Master Hongya resided at Xi shan ... when he attained immortality."


Guangcheng were the initiators,

loc. cit. (fn. 49) "Guangchengzi ... is ... the hermit sage who taught the Yellow Emperor about the Perfect Way in Zhuangzi 11 (‘Zai you’ ...). ... Guangchengzi is also the subject of Gaoshi yong 2."


Zizhou and Shan Juan followed in their wake.

fn. 50 "Both Zizhou Zhifu ... (also known and Zizhou Zhibo ...) and Shan Juan ... appear at the beginning of Zhuangzi 28 (‘Rang wang’ ...), where resp. Yao and Shun unsuccessfully attempt to cede the empire to them."


Near the Fen River appeared the guests who scorned the emperor,

fn. 51 "Zhuangzi 1 (‘Xiaoyao you’ ...) recounts how Yao ... went to see the four masters of the faraway Gushe mountains ..., north of the Fen River ...".

[pp. 186-7, fn. 51 "The ‘four masters" are ... Xu You, his teacher Nie Que ..., Nie Que’s teacher Wang Ni ... and Wang Ni’s teacher Piyi ... . See Guo Qingfan, Zhuangzi jishi, 1.34, and Huangfu Mi’s Gaoshi zhuan, 1.3a."]

p. 187

North of the Ying was heard the old man who washed out his ears."

fn. 52 "When Yao wanted to cede the empire to Xu You, the latter took up farming on the north bank of the Ying River, south of the Central Marchmount. When Yao made a second attempt at luring ..., Xu You washed his ears with the water of the Ying. See Huangfu Mi’s Gaoshi zhuan, 1.3a. Xu You is the subject of Gaoshi yong 3."

p. 188

"Zigao, who admonished Yu of the Xia,

fn. 61 "Bocheng Zigao ..., a nobleman at the time of Yao, relinquished his title and started farming after Yu, the first Xia emperor, had mounted the throne."


The old man of Zang, who instructed [King] Wen of the Zhou".

fn. 62 "In Zhuangzi 21 (‘Tian Zifang’ ...), the founder of the Zhou dynasty is made to hand over the government to an old fisherman of Zang ... . ... When asked by King Wen whether this style of governing could be applied to the whole world, the old man of Zang ran away and was never seen again. Cf, Guo Qingfan, Zhuangzi jishi, 21.720-23. The episode is also the topic of Wu Yun’s sixth Gaoshi yong."

p. 191

"The Lai family bore burdens to say goodbye to officialdom.

fn. 77 "Laolaizi ... is reputed to have been a contemporary of Confucius. In the section on Daoist books of the Han shu, a long lost collection of sixteen pieces of Laolaizi’s writings is mentioned. ... See Gaoshi zhuan, 1.7a; Guo Qingfan, Zhuangzi jishi, 26.928-30".


Nanhua chose a lacquer garden as his lodgings,

fn. 78 Nan-hua Z^en-ren is an honorific title of "Zhuangzi, who supposedly once worked as a clerk in a lacquer garden".


Liezi lived in a game preserve in Zheng".

fn. 79 "Referring to the opening sentence of the Liezi. See also Gaoshi yong 9."

p. 192

"Jizhu divined by tortoise-shell and straws".

fn. 85 "Sima Jizhu is the subject of Gaoshi yong 38."

p. 193

"Qiqi rejoiced thrice".

fm. 91 Rong Qiqi ... walked singing merrily and playing his lute. ... See ... Gaoshi yong 13."

p. 194

"Sumen’s endless whistling, ... as of simurgh and phoenix."

fn. 95 "The mysterious whistler of Mount Sumen ... (Henan), ... Sun Deng’s whistling was so famous ... . ... Biography of Sun Deng in Jin shu, 94.2426 ... . ... Sun Deng is also the subject of Gaoshi yong 47."

p. 195

"Jiao Xian"

fn. 97 "Jiao Xian ..., zi Xiaoran ... slept in the open air, lying on the ground naked even when the winter’s snow fell in abundance. He lived to be over a hundred years old. See Gaoshi zhuan, 3.11b."


"Guo Wen"

p. 196, fn. 99 "Guo Wen, zi Wenju ... (d. 333 or 334), from Henai ... . ... people believed Guo to possess prophetic talents. Thereafter Guo Wen no longer spoke, communicating only via gestures. ... Guo Wen is also the subject of Gaoshi yong 49."

p. 197


fn. 103 Zheng Pu ..., zi Zizhen ..., ... was given a place in the Daoist pantheon, charged as he was with administering the fifth of the 36 minor grotto heavens (Chang shan ..., or Heng shan, the northern of China’s five sacred marchmounts. See Yunji qiqian, 27.4a-b."

p. 201, fn. 119 Lu: Bu-wei was father of the "First Emperor" [S^i Huan-di], who was adopted by Zi-c^u, king of Qin, when Lu: Bu-wei gave his own praegnant wife (from Han-dan) to Zi-c^u.

SINICA LEIDENSIA, Vol. LXXII = Jan de Meyer : Wu Yun’s Way. Brill, Leiden, 2006. pp. 103-146 = cap. 2; pp. 177-205 = cap. 4