1 to 9


"Special Places"

11 to 18



19 to 27



29 to 39



41 to 58




1 to 9

p. 3a (AV) Ac^ai Ta-ah

"After death, the spirit would travel to Achai Ta-ah, Father Sun, enter the sun, and become part of it. After three days,

the soul would become a star, and the people would see a new star in heaven.

{"And they that be wise shall shine ... : and they that turn many to righteousness as the stars for ever and ever." (Daniye>l 12:3)} {According to the >ans.ayri, "Those who in this life ... are hospitable and follow their faith, become stars" (SSS^L, p. 122 -- cf. LG, p. 816a).} {"Within the telestial glory there will be varying degrees of glory even as the stars vary in brightness as we see them." ("H&DG")}

Heaven was believed to be the center of the sun.

{"the sun was heaven." (BIM, vol. 1, "GS" p. 263, fn. 4)}

Hell was ... that area outside the sun. Here ... the soul orbited around the sun indefinitely ... . ...

{Hell = "corruption" (BIM, vol. 1,"ALD"), i.e, "Annwn ... the extreme limits of the circle of Gwynvyd." (BIM, vol. 1, "FA")}

Sometimes, ... the deceased ... would have to return to this earth dwelling and communicate spiritually to ask forgiveness of those he had offended while on earth."

Daniye>l 12:3 http://biblehub.com/daniel/12-3.htm

SSS&L = Bernard H. Springett : Secret Sects of Syria and the Lebanon. London : George Allen & Unwin Ltd, 1922. https://archive.org/stream/secretsectsofsyr032392mbp/secretsectsofsyr032392mbp_djvu.txt

LG = THE LITERARY GAZETTE : A WEEKLY JOURNAL OF LITERATURE, SCIENCE, AND THE FINE ARTS for 1851. London : Reeve & Benham, 1852. http://books.google.com/books?id=DIFGAQAAIAAJ&pg=PA816&lpg=PA816&dq=

"H&DG" = W. John Walsh : "Heaven and the Degrees of Glory". http://www.lightplanet.com/mormons/basic/afterlife/degrees_glory_eom.htm

BIM = J. Williams Ab Ithel (ed.) :The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg. Llandovery : D. J. Roderic. Vol. I. 1862. http://www.sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/bim1/index.htm

"GS" = "God in the Sun." http://www.sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/bim1/bim1109.htm

"ALD" = "Annwn.--Life.--Death." http://www.sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/bim1/bim1101.htm

"FA" = "Fall in Abred." http://www.sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/bim1/bim1108.htm

p. 3b (HG) naming the Sun

"the tortilla fish, Taskai Kuchu, ... said that the sun ... looked like him -- flat and round and shiny ... . The silver sunfish named the sun after himself".

{[Sanpoil myth] Sun-fish (CTBL, p. 71) were caught in a fish-trap by Coyote, who laid caught fish on "sunflowers" (CTBL, p. 75).} {Sunfish is baited with sphinx ("FS") : cf. the "Riddle of the Sphinx" concerning episodes of the day (with human substituting for sun).} {cf. also "the sun-fish from the constellation Revati" (H&ChM-MA, p. 593)}

CTBL = Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation Upper Columbia River, Book of Legends, compiled by Jennifer K. Ferguson. Nespelem (WA), 2007. http://www.colvilletribes.com/book_of_legends.php

"FS" = "Flowers to Swords" (AUDUBON MAG Earth Almanac) http://archive.audubonmagazine.org/earthalmanac/almanac0611.html

H&ChM-MA = James Francis Katherinus Hewitt : History and Chronology of the Myth-Making Age. J. Parker & Co, 1901. http://books.google.com/books?id=AV0AAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA593&lpg=PA593&dq=

pp. 4b-5a (CG) Bobok & Yuku

p. 4b

After failure by swallow-bird to attract rain from rain-god Yuku, the 8 pueblos

p. 5a

sent Bobok ('Toad'), who "borrowed some bat wings" and thus was successful.

p. 6b (AV) talking tree

"a tree ... making noises in a strange language ... was one ... Palo Verde ... on Omteme Kawi. ... During this time, a very young girl, Yomumuli, kept ... whispering that she could understand the talking tree. ... So Yomumuli ... translated word for word what the prophetic tree foretold for their future. ... So, the Surems divided into two parties ... . Some ... walked into the sea and live there still.

Others ... turned into black ants and live underground".

{At the conclusion of the 2nd World, "the Ant People ... open up their underground world for the chosen people." (BH, p. 16)}

BH = Frank Waters : The Book of the Hopi. Viking Penguin Bks, 1963.

p. 7ab (CG) serpent

p. 7a

"The enormous snake was seen from a great distance as it advanced ... . ... Observing this, the supreme chief of the Yaquis ... agreed that

the Magician Chapulin (Grasshopper) would be sent to aid them, while the warriors continued their battle.

{cf. the military fortifications at Chapul-tepec ('Grasshopper Hill')}

So it was that the golondrina (swallow) was asked to take the message to the Magician Chapulin. ... Upon hearing this, ... the Magician Chapulin gathered his strength and from Ju-upa Ro-e, the hill so-called because of the crippled mesquite tree which grew on it, he made a great {prodigious} leap. ...

p. 7b

The Magician Chapulin then ordered them to gather green vegetation, mash it, and rub his body with it.

{myth of how grasshoppers became green}

They placed him, at his command, on the highest branch of a nearby tree that was overhanging the road. ... When the {serpent} came close enough, the Magician Chapulin ... cut the serpent's body to pieces. The head of the serpent ... became the mountain Tenjahueme, ... "yawning mouth." ... Thus was one of the prophecies of the talking tree fulfilled."

p. 8b (CV) Yomumuli imparted a nickame to a girl baby

"Yomumuli, the good spirit, "kidnapped" the new baby and gave her a sobre-nombre ([sobriquet,] nickname) of Sewa Liowe, the name of a flower. ... This throws the evil spirit off the track".

p. 9a (CV) Surem

"the Surems ... lived in Cerro Surem, in a Pueblo of enanitos. They were very short and fat. They were awkward at running and would fall if they tried to run fast {swiftly}. ...

The Surems ... ate their meat raw ... . ...

{aequivalent to the Pis`a-aca ('Raw-Meat Devourer') category of deities}

They liked to come out and stare at the {human} villagers ... .

It is said that these little people help one who is lost in the monte (desert), even here in Arizona. They bring the lost one food {and water}".

p. 9b (AV) Il-lic^im

"Another man ... returned by himself and said that a little person showed up ... . The little person took {the lost man}'s hand and guided him through the desert and

kept him from walking into a cactus or getting hurt in the dark. {The lost man} said that the il-lichim protected him, otherwise he never would have made it home safely."

{Carlos Castan~eda likewise mentioned being miraculously protected from running into cacti in the desert in the dark at night.}



"Special Places"

11 to 18

p. 13ab (AV) Sikil Kawi

p. 13a

"There is a Red Mountain, Sikil Kawi, in Sonora ... that has supernatural powers within it. It's ... a little hill ... above the railroad junction of Corral, ... from Torim toward Vicam Switch. There is one spot on the mountain ... which leads into a large cave inside. At high noon you can ... hear beautiful supernatural music coming out of it. This is Yo-Ania, an enchanted world where you can pick up a talent, ... playing a musical instrument, ... without having to practice. ...

When you do get in, you'll ... be met by an old man with a beard who will then have a young, handsome man (if you're a girl) or a beautiful young girl (if you're a man) conduct you on a tour. ... There are tests of bravery which you must pass in order to earn the supernatural musical talent ... . The cave is filled with wild animals, but you must not be afraid ... . You have to sit on a stool or log which turns into a snake, but you must not get scared.

This large snake, the king of the animals, will ... lick your face.

{"Then ... a sticky, wet red tongue longer than a human body licked me all over." ("S&H", p. 255)}

If you pass this test without showing fear, you will be led to where the equipment for ... musicians ... is hanging. You must lift down the equipment ... and with this gift, you become famous, the best player of your instrument ... . ... You could become one of the ... maestros (susuakame) ... . By getting this gift you have sold ... your soul to the supernatural. You will be told that the contract is for 7, 14, 21 (... multiple of 7) years.

At the end of that time you will disappear, no matter where you are or what you're doing.

{This is the Bon ideal, described at the conclusion of each Bon hagiology.}

p. 13b

And you ... will return to Sikil Kawi.

When you're leaving Yo-Ania, you must stumble in and our of a pit of rattlesnakes, but must not get scared, otherwise you lose your gift ... . Or you could go crazy ..., if you panic. If you pass all these tests, you are congratulated by the snake and animals, and must take leave of them ... respectfully. Then you are escorted to the mouth of the cave. The opening is only big enough for ... yourself ... to get out into the world again".

"S&H" = "Serpent & Hummingbird". Capitulum 10 of :QD.

QD = Heather Valencia & Rolly Kent : Queen of Dreams : the Story of a Yaqui Dreaming Woman. Simon & Schuster, NY, 1991.

p. 14a (AV) Yo-Joara

"one sees a snake coming, getting larger and larger, until one can enter through its mouth. Once inside Bakot Teni, the snake, one is in a large cavern and comes to a pueblo, to Yo-Joara (Enchanted House). ... And with Yo-Joara one does not have to sell the soul to the supernatural."

p. 15a (CV) Bakot

"Bakot Pascola (... "snake Pascola) had the ability to shrink himself into very small size. While dancing, he would make himself smaller and smaller until he could dance on the drum and even inside the harp. It is said that he got this gift through Yo-Ania".

p. 15a (CG) glow of gold

"In the old days the Sierra (Mountain) Yaquis used dry tomatillos coated with gold dust ... for Koyolim, (the leather belt with 7 bells, each representing a prayer)".

p. 17a (CV) ghost of Pikac^o Peak

"People say that on the mountain of Picacho Peak there is a Tejano who wears a tall Charro hat and gallops down the mountainside any time, day or night. He stalls pasing cars, especially on dark nights, and rocks them back and forth."

p. 18a (MV) Pikac^o Peak ghost

"they stopped to rest on a hill right near Picacho Peak, and someone started throwing sand and pebbles in their faces ..., but no one was in sight. ... The someone, what ever it was, began to throw big clods at them, but there was still no one around."




19 to 27

p. 21a (RV) sierpas

"Almost any sort of {praeternatural} animal can be a sierpa -- giant tarantulas, scorpions ... . ... Their hole's entrance is wind-swept clean because the sierpas are always accompanied by a chabusco (big wind), that is strong enough to suck large animals into its hole for meals. ... When sierpas grow very big, which takes years, they come out of their holes and they go into the sea, with the chabusco creating an uproar and destroying everything in its path."

p. 22a (CV) Suawaka

"Suawaka is a fat, naked dwarf about a foot high {tall}. His home is in the sky. ...

When Suawaka kills the serpent, the rains ... stop."

{When rains stop for long enough, there is killing drought. */SUA/ is the proto-Polynesian etymon for /Hua/, name of a mythic king of the island Maui. He slew a high-priest, with the result that "every well, brook, and spring in the island went dry" (M&LNP&P, p. 244); so that there persisted "drouth, thirst, ... for three and a half years" (M&LNP&P, p. 245).}

M&LNP&P = Charles M. Skinner :Myths and Legends of Our New Possessions and Protectorate. Philadelphia : J. B. Lippincott Co, 1900. https://archive.org/stream/mythslegendsofou05skin/mythslegendsofou05skin_djvu.txt

p. 22a (AV) c^oni's victims

"A choni is a small midget-like figure. Its master can send it on an errand ... . The choni goes ... in the form of a long hunk of hair, usually around three in the morning ... . Sometimes the choni is caught ...; but... still gives ... a ... scare which results in high fever and a long illness. The choni makes a cry like a baby wailing."

p. 22b (CV) c^oni

"The choni can go through the air wherever its master sends it; troops of Yaquis in the Sierras liked to have somone along with a choni because it could scout ahead without being seen and report on what it saw. ... The choni makes a whistling noise, and sometimes it cries like a baby when it wants to be picked up. The choni (in the form of a scalp with a

hunk of hair dangling from it) must be picked up ... and kept in the pocket all the time. ...

There is a place ... where we used to go prospecting for gold during the Depression ... . ... At that place we could hear a choni going down the road, crying like a baby because it wanted to be picked up. It's probably still there now."

{Could this suggest that the god of gold, Xipe Totec, is an Aztec aequivalent to the c^oni? Xipe Totec is a musician-god; and music was heard in the cemetery (in a dream about the cemetery -- "CM", p. 185) where a c^one was praeternaturally avaiable ("RP", p. 223).}

"CM" = "Crocodile-Moon". QD, cap. 6.

"RP" = "Return to Paradise". QD, cap. 8.

p. 22b (CV) jealous c^oni

"The choni is so capricious and jealous that its master could have only one wife. ... He cannot even remarry if his wife dies. Also, a man can only own one choni as a time, because of the choni's jealousy."

p. 23a (RV) getting ... a c^oni

"When people hear a whistling or whining noise in the house or outside the house house, they have to look for a choni. When they find it, they ... must ... throw ashes and ground chili on it ... . This ... choni ... returns to its master".

p. 23b (CV) how a praeternatural coludo was seen by girls

"a young girl, she and the others had a lot of ironing to do. They worked into the night; then they saw a coludo, who looked like a kangeroo {kangaroo} with a long tail and big ears that stick up."

p. 24a (CV) coludo shadow was seen by a maiden

"she saw his shadow, and it was that of a big-eared animal with a very long tail. ... Well, she was so scared that her parents said,

"Well, we must marry you off ... before anything worse happens." This was done".

{The implication is that the coludo had sent its shadow to warn that the maiden's prospective marriage was being unnecessarily delayed.}

p. 27a (CG) el diablo

"at night, the devil will answer and one will be curious ... . So he'll follow the sound ... away into the desert, and he will never return.

To the Yaqui, the devil's soul is in the whirlwind." {dust-devil}




29 to 39

p. 32a (MVK) an apparent coludo

"the dogs started barking. From the house they saw ... coming out of the cotton field ... some kind of lizard over two feet high {tall} ... . Its skin was like bright-colored beads ... . It had a very long tail, and it walked with its body off the ground, slowly".

p. 33a (MVK) dreams as praemonitions

"Yaquis set a great store by dreams. It is taken for granted that there are many among us who can dream of events before they happen, or whose dreams warn them of coming danger. ... These dreams can be accurate foretellings and descriptions of future events with all the persons, names, and places correct."

33b (MVK) phantasm of the dying

"Rosario was very ill in the hospital and while I was alone at my apartment, I heard his voice clearly, calling me, while someone banged on the door. ... I opened it right away, but no one was there. ... . ... Rosario died soon after that."

p. 35b (AV) hiac-vivam

"The viva (hiacvivam cigarette) is ... a cigarette that moves through the air at night, as if someone's smoking it while walking. Once it followed this man that I know, and every time he stopped, it did too, and when he started walking again, it followed close behind."

{cf. "cigarettes with the sleeping drug" which would "run her around all night until dawn." (L&LP&PI, p. 260) [Is sleepwalking suggested?]}

L&LP&PI = Dean & Lucille Saxton : Legends and Lore of the Pima and Papago Indians. U of AZ Pr, Tucson, 1973.

p. 36a (AV) hiac-vivam for news

"The viva can also be used to get news of one's relatives. The viva is ... sent on to a relative's house. Here, the viva hovers around, picking up news of the people there ... . Then the viva returns to the owner. One then puts his ear to the viva and can "hear" all the news."

pp. 36b-37a herbal remedies





"pink, sore eyes"

mesquite flower (similar to pussy-willow)



la negrita (a germanium-like plant), with sauco (elderberry)


mesquite bark

pp. 37b-38a (MVK) chictura

p. 37b

"Chictura is disorientation. Even though a person knows a place very well, all of a sudden he gets lost and does not know where he is. He ... loses his sense of direction. ...

p. 38a

Some Yaquis believe that chictura is actually a little bird or animal who lures people on with its whistling sound, and then "loses" them in the desert."

p. 38b brujo & chili

"Witches, it is said, don't eat chili, so if someone won't eat chili, he is teased about being a witch. The combination of chili ... and heat is used to counter bewitchment."

p. 39a (MVK) love-charm

"For a love charm ... so that one will be loved ..., take a small lizard ... and tie a red string around its neck. As long as you keep it in your wallet or pocket, the one ... will be so in love with you that he or she will never be able to leave you".




41 to 58

p. 48a (CG) a bird was fledged by other birds

Thitherto featherless parrot was fledged by a variety of other bird-species.

{This is a widespread myth of tropical-forest South America.}

p. 50a (CG) Coyote & the Stinkbug

"the coyote caught a juva chinai (stinkbug), but juva chinai begged, "... I am in touch with the other world and can tell you what they say." ... So coyote ran back along his trail."

{[Kumeyaay (Dieguen~o, of San Diego, Calif.) myth] "Coyote was coming down the trail when he came upon Stinkbug. ... "Shhhh!" said Stinkbug. "I'm listening to the things they're saying underneath the earth. This trail belongs to the people under the earth ... ."" ("CMS")}

{[Kato of California] Food of Stink-bug (Badedut) causeth "a dizzy convulsion" (Edwards S. Curtis : The North American Indian, vol. 14, p. 28). http://www.worldwisdom.com/public/viewpdf/default.aspx?article-title=Mythology.pdf }

"CMS" = "Coyote Meets Stinkbug". http://historyandculture.com/writings/stinkbug.html

p. 52a (CV) pot boiling without perceived cause

"The olla began to boil, and ... with a long stick {related to the primordial vibrating rod?} speared {cf. spearing of birds by Hatu-patu} those frijoles that boiled to the top".

{"the olla ... boiled and splattered in all directions. [L&LP&PI, p. 264]

Stewed hawk splattered everywhere, and wherever it landed it became poisonous creatures." (L&LP&PI, p. 265)}

{With this boiled-to-death mythic female hawk, cf. the boiled-to-death bird-goddess Kura-naituku ("H&B-W").}

{The boiler which cooked to death Kura-naituku was a natural boiling-spring (volcanicly heated water); much as the Yaki "magic olla" was feignedly self-boiling.}

"H&B-W" = "Legend of Hatupatu and the Bird-woman". TE AO HOU, No. 53 (December 1965). http://teaohou.natlib.govt.nz/journals/teaohou/issue/Mao53TeA/c16.html

pp. 53a-54ab (MK) mythic raptor; archer's life-token

p. 53a

"there also lived a great, big ... bird on the hill of Ontene Kawi. Ontene Kawi means "Angry Mountain" and it was so named because the mountain would always vibrate and was very difficult to climb.

p. 54a

... By the 7th day, this baby began to talk, by the 14th day, he began to walk, and by the 21st day, he began to make himself a small bow and some arrows. ...

[cf. supra p. 13a "you have sold ... your soul ... . ... the contract is for 7, 14, 21 (... multiple of 7) years."]

p. 54b

At the first attempt he was able to knock a feather from the bird as it zoomed toward him ... . ...

{"the eagle ... feathers flew out" (L&LP&PI, p. 304).}

The carrizo twigs ... straightened themselves out ... . The people rejoiced." (The people saw these twigs as betokening victory by the archer.)

{"The people saw in the east the thin white clouds {cf. Ao-tea-roa 'Cloud-White-Long'}, and then they knew that Elder Brother had won." (L&LP&PI, p. 304)}

pp. 57-58 legend of Suawaka and the strong

p. 57a

"had already died from the fearful force of his hand. ...

"Luahoʻomoe took one of the dead birds and held it in his hand." ("PH", p. 196)

Suawaka saw in the oven an immense loaf ... . ... .

"As he searched he came upon ... breadfruit" ("PH", p. 197).

pp. 57a-58a

... to lift the weights on the top of the jars ... . ... .

"slowly lifted the lid of the gourd he carried." ("PH", p. 198)

p. 58a

... the rain had stopped ... . ... .

"No rain fell" ("PH", p. 196).

... catching the rays of the sun and glinting with all its colors."

"The sun rose and clouds ... glowed with color" ("PH", p. 197).

"PH" = (pp. 193-199) "The Punishment of Hua". In :- chapter 6 (pp. 171-207) "Legends Of Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi And Maui". http://www.ulukau.org/elib/cgi-bin/library?e=d-0water-000Sec--11en-50-20-frameset-book--1-010escapewin&a=d&d=D0.8&toc=0 of :- Mary Kawena Pūkuʻi : The Water of Kāne and Other Legends of the Hawaiian Islands. rev. edn.


Co-authors & Co-authoresses :-

AV = Mr Anselmo Valencia (born 1921. son of CG)


MVK = Mrs Mini Valenzuela Kaczkurkin

CV = Mrs Christina Valenzuela (mother of MVK)

CG = Mrs Carmen Garcia (died Sept 1971. grandmother of MVK)

MV = Mrs Mariana Valenzuela (eldest daughter of CV)

RV = Mr Rosario Valencia Vela (a.k.a. Rosalio Moises) (died May 1969. 1st husband of CG; and grandfather of MVK)


Mini Valenzuela Kaczkurkin (editrix) : Yoeme : Lore of the Arizona Yaqui People. Sun Tracks, U of AZ, Tucson, 1977.