MesoAmerican calendar

meanings of day-names BY, Fig. 15c

#

usual name

Ha

Te

Mi

Za

other aberrant name

1

alligator

 

light

root

day

sun (Le) [luminosity of Lagenaria phosphorea ?]; fish (Ot)

2

wind

         

3

night

grain

house

palm

 

house (Tz); grain (C^o) [should be palmnuts ?]

4

iguana

   

hard

black

net (Ca, Ix, Ma); quetzal (Pi); maizebud (Me)

5

serpent

soot

       

6

death

         

7

deer

       

quetzal (C^o)

8

rabbit

 

greet

     

9

rain

   

river

water

pay (Aw) [coin-fare to Kharon ?]

10

hound

   

liana

 

foot (Yu) [foot tripped by liana ?]

11

monkey

 

ashes

     

12

tooth

 

twist

 

sun

 

13

reed

         

14

leopard

       

heart (Pi)

15

bird

 

eagle

tobacco

eagle

quail (Aw); cobweb (Me)

16

owl

spider

buzzard

edge

crow

god (Me, Ot)

17

earthquake

incense

sun

   

incense (Ca, Ix, Aw, Ma); prince (Pi)

18

flint

 

stone

soot

cold

obsidian (C^o); nails (Ot)

19

storm

fire

rain

grass

cloud

turtle (Pi) [which eateth grass]

20

lord

 

flower

eye

flower

hunter (Ca, Ix, Aw, Ma)

Ha = Hacaltec; Te = Tekiztlatec; Mi = Mixe; Za = Zapotec;

Le = Lenca; Tz = Tzeltal; Ca = Cakc^icel; Ix = Ixil; Ma = Mam; C^o = C^ol; Aw = Awacatec; Yu = Yucatec;

Ot = Otomi; Pi = Pipil; Me = Metztitlan; ... Ke = Kekc^i

Edmonson's translation is sometimes wrong:

1. Maya (Yu/C^o/Ca) names (Imix/Imux/Imox) mean "beetle (large insect)", not "alligator"

4. Maya (Yu, Ha) names (Kan, Kana>) mean "ripe", not "iguana"

6. [C^o & Ca] Toh is "rain", not "death"

7. [Yu] Manik, [Ke] Mayik is not "deer", but "gesture"

8. [Yu] Lamat, [C^o] Lambat is not "rabbit"

9. [Yu] Muluc, [Ke] Moloc is not "water"

10. Maya (Yu & C^o) name Oc is "coyote", not "foot"

meanings of month-names BY, Fig. 16b

#

Yu

Po

Tz

Mi

C^i

Maz

Ot

Matl

1

end

bird

incense

hound

 

grow

flight

crane

2

   

green

 

fruit

wood

tortilla

twins

3

gather

tree

mud

 

nausea

broken

water

falling

4

well

green

plant

stone

five

cloud

old

grandfather

5

green

white

amaranth

 

burn

want

flower

 

6

white

hound

white

 

depth

wind

maize

 

7

DEER

 

RED

tree

 

count

flay

 

8

COVER

COVER

COVER

tree

   

flight

 

9

yellow

   

bat

 

blood

smoke

vigil

10

owl

owl

arrive

leopard

lie

owl

maize

youth

11

drum

crab

lord

house

mosquito

fruit

   

12

TURTLE

SQUASH

opossum

wet

stand

fat

 

porridge

13

dark

 

opossum

squash

 

anger

 

porridge

14

MAT

SOFT

7

viper

grow

 

dead

dead

15

FROG

DAMP

6

viper

fall

yellow

dead

dead

16

stag

 

5

liver

heavy

greens

broom

sweep

17

bat

 

4

mouth

hot

worm

moss

 

18

skull

 

3

 

maize

 

moss

 

i-c

specter

 

lost

 

unseen

 

dead

 

Yu = Yucatec; Po = Pokomam; Tz = Tzeltal

Mi = Mixe; C^i = C^inantec; Maz = Mazatec; Ot = Otomi; Matl = Matlatzinca

symbolic associations:

A DEER is used (in Codex Borgia) to demonstrate the 20 day-signs just as is Tlaloc (in Codex Laud) = C^ac "RED".

SQUASH is used, like TURTLE, in ball-game of netherworld in Dennis Tedlock's translation of the Popol Vuh.

MATs are SOFT cushions.

FROGs are DAMP, WET.

some of these lists could use re-alignment, thus:--

Yu

Po

Tz

Mi

Maz

 

bird

green

   

GATHER

 

mud

 

BLOOD

WELL

TREE

plant

 

OWL

GREEN

GREEN

amaranth

hound

fruit

WHITE

WHITE

WHITE

 

FAT

[omitted]

hound

[omitted]

 

[omitted]

deer

 

red

stone

anger

cover

cover

cover

   

YELLOW

     

YELLOW

owl

owl

arrive

tree

greens

drum

crab

lord

tree

worm

turtle

squash

opossum

bat

 

DARK

 

opossum

LEOPARD

 

mat

soft

7

house

grow

frog

DAMP

6

WET

wood

stag

 

5

squash

broken

bat

 

4

VIPER

CLOUD

skull

 

3

viper

want

SPECTER

 

lost

LIVER

WIND

end

 

INCENSE

MOUTH

COUNT

symbolic associations:

Upon being "GATHERed unto the fathers" (frequent Biblical expression for dying), one must cross (according to the poem Balders Draum in the Edda) a river of BLOOD.

An olive-TREE was planted by the OWL-goddess Athene beside a WELL (GM 16.c).

FAT is WHITE.

In the DARK, LEOPARDs prowl.

VIPER: cf. Mix-coatl "CLOUD-snake", the "cloud-snake" being often mentioned in Wic^ol mythology.

Samskr.ta "LIVER" yak-r.t would be in Teutonic *yah-, name (in book of Thili^m) of the god who is a frightening-to-death (S^emo^t 33:20) SPECTER -- unless viewed in the whirlWIND (according to book of >iyob).

INCENSE is ingested (by MOUTH) by at his consecration each priest of the Guji Oromo, beginning a COUNT of 8-years' term in office (N&RD, p. 223).

BY = Munro S. Edmonson: The Book of the Year. U. of UT Pr, Salt Lake City, 1988.

GM = Robert Graves: The Greek Myths. 1955.

N&RD = Dan Bauer & John Hinnant: "Normal and Revolutionary Divination." In:-- Ivan Karp & Charles Bird (eds.): Explorations in African Systems of Thought. IN U. Pr, Bloomington, 1980. pp. 213-236